Timothy. Shopen 2007 stated that, there are at least four senses in which one can speak about clause or sentence types in a linguistic communication. One manner is in footings of the differentiation between declaratory, interrogative, imperative, and emphatic sentences. A 2nd sense of clause type is represented by the differentiation between chief clause and subsidiary clause, and among different types of subsidiary clauses. Issues related to this sense are discussed in the chapters on subordination, A 3rd sense of clause type concerns the manner the same event or state of affairs can be spoken approximately, from different positions, with grammatical effects such as voice and matter-of-fact effects such as subject and focal point. The 4th sense, the one discussed, involves different types of clauses in footings of their internal construction, chiefly environing different types of predicates. Here, the most basic differentiation is between verbal and gestural predicates.

B.A.Okolo ( 2008 ) stated that the traditional grammarian chap a certain process harmonizing to what he understand about the nature of the linguistic communication, he added that if the linguistic communication is the contemplation of our idea, so there must be correlativity between what we think and the linguistic communication that we express our ideas, and that why traditional syntactician began his description with complete intending full statement, enforcing that each sentence must has capable and predicate, therefore these parts contribute each other to the significance of the whole sentences.

Definition of a sentence in traditional grammar

Sidney. Greenbaum ( 2002 ) stated that the traditional definition of the sentence is that

“ A sentence is a group of words that express a complete idea ” but he argued that this definition is fanciful, because it could take to misconstruing to what it meant by a complete idea, so he approved this premise by explicating that some sentences have more than a idea.

B. A. Okolo ( 2008 ) added that the words “ complete idea ” in traditional definition of a sentences do non intend logically complete, because logical complete idea does non turned out to be a sentence, but the paragraph, the essay, the chapter or even the whole book.

Sidney ( 2002 ) defined the sentence as a group of words that begins with capital missive and ends with full halt, but once more he argued this definition saying that there are a big figure of sentences begin with two capital letters ( in the instance of nouns ) and still considered as sentences, and others begin with capital missive but non stop with capital missive like jussive moods, exclaimings and inquiries, so this definition is non equal.

Another common definition of sentence in traditional grammar is that “ a sentence is a group of words that consist of topic and predicate ” but A. B ( 2008 ) argued that by saying that tonss of sentences in English do non dwell of capable take like for illustration imperative “ take off your places ” therefore sentence is easy to depict ( explicate ) instead than specify.

Bas Arts and April MCmahan ( 2006 ) defined the sentence as “ A sentence is fundamentally a group of words which are tied together and convey an thought, event or description. The words in an English sentence have a certain order and regulations sing ways to either expand or shorten it. The boundaries of a sentence are easy recognized, as it begins with a capital missive and ends with a terminal punctuation grade ( period, inquiry grade or exclaiming point ) . It is of import for English authors to cognize the linguistic communication of sentence grammar footings in order to be able to analyse and develop their authorship ”

Sentence types harmonizing to significance and word order:

M. Verspoor and K. Sauter ( 2000 ) stated that English sentences can be classified harmonizing to communicative maps and forms into four basic discoveries: Declarative, Interrogative, Imperative and Exclamatory sentence forms, they added that when people communicate, they communicate for assorted grounds, but the four chief grounds are:

-To inform person of something

-To acquire information from person

-To acquire person to make something

-To express one ‘s attitude about something

And each of these communicative maps has the undermentioned forms

John is go forthing.

Is John go forthing?


How atrocious John is go forthing!

So these forms have the undermentioned syntactic features:

Subject- whole verb

Part of verb- subject- remainder of the verb

Verb by itself

How aˆ¦..Followed by balance of sentence

Therefore the words “ toilet is go forthing ” express the undermentioned maps

Informing ( indicative mood )

Asking for information ( interrogative )

Geting person to make something ( imperative )

Expressing feeling/attitude ( exclamatory )

B.A.Okol ( 2008 ) added that traditional syntacticians by and large agreed that sentences can show four sorts of significance

Facts ( declaratory sentences )

The declaratory sentence is used chiefly to do an averment ; normally it states a fact, but sometimes a chance, a possibility, or even an impossibleness, the normal word-order of the declaratory sentence is subject-verb or subject-verb-complement. This order is normally changed.

Commands ( imperative sentences )

An imperative sentence expresses a bid or a petition, there is normally no formal difference between an imperative sentence with expressed topic and a declaratory sentence. Therefore you sing out of context may be either a petition that you do the vocalizing ( imperative ) or a comment that you know how to sing ( declaratory ) . But sentences utilizing the verb ( be ) can be distinguished by the signifier of the verb:

You be the vocalist ( imperative )

You are the vocalist ( declaratory )

Questions ( interrogative sentences )

The interrogative sentence normally asks a inquiry

Exclamations ( emphatic sentences )

An exclaimings sentence expresses experiencing or emotion. Emphatic sentences are frequently introduced by what or how, as a qualifier of the complement

Interrogative Sentences

The interrogative sentence normally asks a inquiry:

Have you seen Sam?

Make you cognize that John is ill?

Did the physician say it will be twins?

Is the nutrient good?

Sentence harmonizing to verbal predicate

Transitive and intransitive clause:

Timothy Shopen ( 2007 ) explained that the differentiation of the clause with verbal predicates, is that the differentiation between transitive and intransitive, transitive clause takes two or more statement, whereas intransitive takes merely one statement, so in linguistic communications like English the differentiation can be, by stating that transitive clause has an object, whereas intransitive does non as in the undermentioned illustrations:

My Canis familiaris ate the beefburger ( transitive )

My Canis familiaris is kiping in the degradation

From the illustrations above, it is clear that transitive verbs like eat need an object to finish the significance of the clause, but intransitive verbs like slumber does non necessitate an object, although there a prepositional phrase followed the verb slumber in the above sentence but it is non an object, it is an adjunct because the significance is still complete if this prepositional phrase removed from the sentence.

Ditransitive clause

Timothy ( 2007 ) stated that some English buildings contain more than object, or at least two nonsubject statements, so these buildings are so called ditransitives as the illustrations below explain:

Nancy gave Jeff some flowers

Bob told Sally a narrative

So in these illustrations the noun phrases Jeff and Sally are so called indirect object, and the noun phrases some flowers and a narrative are direct object, in the old illustrations indirect objects flowed instantly the verb, whereas direct objects end the sentence, but in the building with preposition direct object flowed the verb instantly and indirect object flowed the preposition as in the undermentioned buildings:

Nancy gave some flowers to Jeff

Bob told a narrative to Sally

Data aggregation and analysis:

Data aggregation:

For the intent of this assignment the research worker selected indiscriminately a chapter from the book titled, the memories of babikr bedri, this book is written by Babikr Bedri in Arabic and translated to English by his boy yousif bedri, the chapter selected is chapter one which is titled, Babyhood and Youth page 1-14.

And the motive beyond this is to look into clause types in English linguistic communication harmonizing to the undermentioned standards:

Harmonizing to significance and word order

And harmonizing to verbal predicates

Datas analysis:

The informations collected for the intent of this survey were analyzed in the undermentioned stairss:

Measure one: to place clause types harmonizing to significance and word order

Measure two: to place clause types harmonizing to verbal predicates

Measure one

Clause harmonizing to significance and word order

Facts ( declaratory sentences )

Our instructor sat down ( Para 1 Page 6 )

I mastered the memorisation of Koran in the twelvemonth 1880 ( Para 4 Page 7 )

We arrived in Madani ( Para 5 Page 9 )

Commands ( imperative sentences )

Come here ( Para 2 Page 5 )

Go and rinse your spline ( the same Para )

Come and compose what you washed off before ( Para 3 Page 5 )

Questions ( interrogative sentences )

When and in what fortunes did you copy this book? ( Para 2 Page 12 )

Make you eat better than that in rufaa? ( Para 2 Page 10 )

What nutrient do you hold? ( Para 2 Page 10 )

To who did declaim the old piece? ( Para 2 page 5 )

Who was with you? ( Para 2 page 5 )

Exclamations ( emphatic sentences )

How he put me down ( Para 3 Page 1 )

Measure two

Clause harmonizing to verbal predicates

Transitive clause

Our instructor Muhammad had studied the Koran and other topics ( Para 2 Page 12 )

I was explained the word wabar ( Para 3 Page 10 )

Intransitive clause

We all laughed ( Para 3 Page 10 )

We agreed ( Para 3 Page 10 )

Ditransitive clause

My parents told me that I was born on 8 August 1861 ( Para 1 Page 1 )

Let me state you about this adult male ( Para 1 Page 4 )

A student ‘s household direct a banquet to the school ( Para 1 page 7 )

She put my books in a fabric satchel ( Para 2 Page 9 )


In this survey, you saw that sentences may hold different communicative maps and that each of these communicative maps is expressed with a typical sentence form, called the indicative mood, interrogative, imperative or emphatic form. The declaratory sentence form is the most common and will be studied the most in this survey.

A typical declaratory sentence gives information about a state of affairs or event and may call one or more participants, a procedure, an property of one of the participants, and assorted facets of the scene. The sentence components calling these are capable, and predicate. The predicate names the procedure, and perchance other participants, properties or puting. The predicate consists of a predicator, which names the procedure, and its complement. The complement in the clause with verbal predicate ( transitive, intransitive and ditransitive ) can be a direct object and indirect object. If there is a direct object, there may besides be either an indirect or benefactive object or an object property in the complement.

English linguistic communication is unlike other linguistic communications, it can use different clause types in its sentences harmonizing to different facets that why anyone could non speak about definit clause types without mentioning to all these standards, but I think that clause can explicate instead than classified.