Chapter I: Introduction One of the biggest problems and focus of government in the Philippines is to find solution of the current problems facing our education today. , is the decrease of quality students produced by secondary level thus the Department of Education is planning to implement additional two years of high schooling in order to boost it so that our country can able to produce a globally competitive students like the country of England. However, the additional two years in high school and adopting the education system of England are really a solution to the problems of education in the Philippines? nd if it is implemented, Does the Government have enough fund to establish such programs and facilities in every school of the country? Education – any process, either formal or informal, that shapes the potential of a maturing organism. Informal education results from the constant effect of environment, and its strength in shaping values and habits can not be overestimated. Formal education is a conscious effort by human society to impart the skills and modes of thought considered essential for social functioning.

Techniques of instruction often reflect the attitudes of society, i. e. , authoritarian groups typically sponsor dogmatic methods, while democratic systems may emphasize freedom of thought. Education in England is the responsibility of the Secretary of State for Children, Schools and Families and the Secretary of State for Innovation, Universities and Skills, though the day to day administration and funding of state schools is the responsibility of Local Authorities (previously named Local Education Authorities). 191] Universal state education in England and Wales was introduced for primary level in 1870 and secondary level in 1900. [192] Education is mandatory from ages five to sixteen (15 if born in late July or August). The majority of children are educated in state-sector schools, only a small proportion of which select on the grounds of academic ability. Despite a fall in actual numbers, the proportion of children in England attending private schools has risen to over 7%. [193] Just over half of students at the leading universities of Cambridge and Oxford had attended state schools. 194] State schools which are allowed to select pupils according to intelligence and academic ability can achieve comparable results to the most selective private schools: out of the top ten performing schools in terms of GCSE results in 2006 two were state-run grammar schools. England has some of the top universities in the world; University of Cambridge, University of Oxford, Imperial College London and University College London are ranked in the global top 10 in the 2008 THES – QS World University Rankings. 195] Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) rated pupils in England 7th in the world for Maths, and 6th for Science. The results put England’s pupils ahead of other European countries, including Germany and Scandinavian countries. [196] Education in the Philippines is patterned after the American system, with English as the medium of instruction. Schools are classified into public (government) or private (non-government).

The general pattern of formal education follows four stages: Pre-primary level (nursery and kindergarten) offered in most private schools; six years of primary education, followed by four years of secondary education. College education usually takes four, sometimes five and in some cases as in medical and law schools, as long as eight years. Graduate schooling is an additional two or more years. Classes in Philippine schools start in June and end in March. Colleges and universities follow the semestral calendar from June-October and November-March.

There are a number of foreign schools with study programs similar to those of the mother country. Chapter II: Importance of the study This comparative study of educational system will help the readers specially the educational managers know and understand what are the problems and current situation of the Philippines that affects our education. It will let them also know what part of education system of England that we can imitate and establish in our system of education to produce globally competitive students.

CHAPTER III: Presentation and Interpretation • Geographical Setting England accounts for just over half of the total area of the UK, covering 130,410 square kilometres (50,350 sq mi). Most of the country consists of constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy. , with mountainous terrain north-west of the Tees-Exe line including the Cumbrian Mountains of the Lake District, the Pennines and limestone hills of the Peak District, Exmoor and Dartmoor. The main rivers and estuaries are the Thames, Severn and the Humber.

England’s highest mountain is Scafell Pike, which is in the Lake District 978 metres (3,209 ft). England has a number of large towns and cities, including six of the top 50 Larger Urban Zones in the European Union. Philippines constitutes an archipelago of 7,107 islands with a total land area of approximately 300,000 square kilometres (116,000 square miles). It is located between 116° 40′, and 126° 34′ E. longitude and 4° 40′ and 21° 10′ N. latitude and borders the Philippine Sea on the east, the South China Sea on the west, and the Celebes Sea on the south.

The island of Borneo is located a few hundred kilometres southwest and Taiwan is located directly to the north. The Moluccas and Sulawesi are located to the south-southwest and Palau is located to the east of the islands. The Philippines is divided into three island groups: Luzon (Regions I to V, NCR and CAR), Visayas (VI to VIII), and Mindanao (IX to XIII and ARMM). The port of Manila, on Luzon, is the capital city and the second largest city after Quezon City • Type of Government

As part of the United Kingdom the basic political system in England is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy. There has not been a Government of England since 1707, when the Acts of Union 1707, putting into effect the terms of the Treaty of Union, joined the England and Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. [54] Before the union England was ruled by its monarch and the Parliament of England. Today England is governed directly by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, although other countries of the United Kingdom have devolved governments. 61] In the House of Commons which is the lower house of the British Parliament based at the Palace of Westminster, there are 529 Members of Parliament for constituencies in England, out of the 646 total Philippines has a presidential, unitary form of government (with some modification, there is one autonomous region largely free from the national government), where the President functions as both head of state and head of government and is commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The president is elected by popular vote to a single six-year term, during which time she or he appoints and presides over the cabinet. • Objectives of education in England The National Curriculum was introduced into England, Wales and Northern Ireland as a nationwide curriculum for primary and secondary state schools following the Education Reform Act 1988. Notwithstanding its name, it does not apply to Independent Schools, which by definition are free to set their own curriculum, but it ensures that state schools of all Local Education Authorities have a common curriculum. The Education Reform Act 1988 requires that all state students be taught a Basic Curriculum of Religious Education and the National Curriculum.

The purpose of the National Curriculum was to standardize the content taught across schools in order to enable assessment, which in turn enabled the compilation of league tables detailing the assessment statistics for each school. These league tables, together with the provision to parents of some degree of choice in assignment of the school for their child (also legislated in the same act) were intended to encourage a ‘free market’ by allowing parents to choose schools based on their measured ability to teach the National Curriculum. Principal aims and purposes

There are two principal aims and four main purposes set out in the National Curriculum documentation: • Aim 1: The school curriculum should aim to provide opportunities for all pupils to learn and to achieve. • Aim 2: The school curriculum should aim to promote pupils’ spiritual, moral, social and cultural development and prepare all pupils for the opportunities, responsibilities and experiences of life. • Purpose 1: To establish an entitlement • Purpose 2: To establish standards • Purpose 3: To promote continuity and coherence • Purpose 4: To promote public understanding

Education in England is overseen by the Department for Children, Schools and Families and the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills. At a local level the local authorities take responsibility for implementing policy for public education and state schools. Full-time education is compulsory for all children aged between 5 and 16 (inclusive). Students may then continue their secondary studies for a further two years (sixth form), leading most typically to an A level qualification, although other qualifications and courses exist, including GNVQ and the International Baccalaureate.

The leaving age for compulsory education was raised to 18 by the Education and Skills Act 2008. The change will take effect in 2013 for 17 year olds and 2015 for 18 year olds. [8] State-provided schools are free of charge to students, and there is also a tradition of independent schooling, but parents may choose to educate their children by any suitable means. Higher education typically begins with a 3-year Bachelor’s Degree. Postgraduate degrees include Master’s Degrees, either taught or by research, and Doctor of Philosophy, a research degree that usually takes at least 3 years.

Universities require a Royal charter in order to issue degrees, and all but one are financed by the state with a low level of fees for students. The state-funded school system State-run schools and colleges are financed through national taxation, and take pupils free of charge between the ages of 3 and 18. The schools may levy charges for activities such as swimming, theatre visits and field trips, provided the charges are voluntary, thus ensuring that those who cannot afford to pay are allowed to participate in such events. Approximately 93% of English schoolchildren attend such schools.

A significant minority of state-funded schools are faith schools, which are attached to religious groups, most often the Church of England or the Roman Catholic Church. There are also a small number of state-funded boarding schools, which typically charge for board but not tuition. Nearly 90% of state-funded secondary schools are specialist schools, receiving extra funding to develop one or more subjects in which the school specialises. Curriculum All maintained schools in England are required to follow the National Curriculum, which is made up of twelve subjects.

The core subjects—English, Mathematics and Science—are compulsory for all students aged 5 to 16. The other foundation subjects are compulsory at one or more Key Stages: • Art & Design • Citizenship • Design & Technology • Geography • History • Information & Communication Technology • Modern Foreign Languages • Music • Physical Education In addition, other statutory subjects are not covered by the National Curriculum, including Religious Education in all year groups, and Career education, Sex education and Work-related learning at secondary age. GRADING SYSTEM Usual grading system in secondary school

Full Description: Alphabetical system A to E. A: excellent/outstanding; B: above average; C: average; D: below average; E: failing. Highest on scale: A Pass/fail level: C/D Lowest on scale: E Main grading system used by higher education institutions Full Description: Alphabetical system A to E. A: excellent/outstanding; B: above average; C: average; D: below average; E: fail. Highest on scale: A Pass/fail level: D/E Lowest on scale: E Primary and secondary education The school year begins usually on the 1st of September (sometimes the 2nd or 3rd if the 1st falls on a weekend).

Education is compulsory for all children from the term after their fifth birthday to the last Friday in June of the school year in which they turn 16. This will be raised in 2013 to the year in which they turn 17 and in 2015 to the year in which they turn 18. Secondary schools by intake Wetherby High School, a typical former secondary modern school in Wetherby, West Yorkshire English secondary schools are mostly comprehensive, except in a few areas that retain a form of the previous selective system (the Tripartite System), with students selected for grammar school by the Entrance Exam.

There are also a number of isolated fully selective grammar schools, and a few dozen partially selective schools. Specialist schools may also select up to 10% of their intake for aptitude in the specialism, though relatively few of them have taken up this option. Also, intakes of comprehensive schools can vary widely, especially in urban areas with several schools. Sir Peter Newsam, Chief Schools Adjudicator 1999–2002, has argued that English schools can be divided into 8 types (with some overlap) based on the ability range of their intake: 1. super-selective”: almost all of the intake from the top 10%. These are the few highly selective grammar schools that dominate school performance tables. 2. “selective”: almost all of the intake from the top 25%. These include grammar schools in areas where the Tripartite system survives. 3. “comprehensive (plus)”: admit children of all abilities, but concentrated in the top 50%. These include partially selective schools and a few high-status faith schools in areas without selection. 4. comprehensive: intake with an ability distribution matching the population.

These schools are most common in rural areas and small towns with no nearby selection, but a few occur in urban areas. 5. “comprehensive (minus)”: admit children of all abilities, but with few in the top 25%. These include comprehensive schools with nearby selective schools “skimming” the intake. 6. secondary modern: hardly any of the intake in the top 25%, but an even distribution of the rest. These include non-selective schools in areas where the Tripartite system survives. 7. “secondary modern (minus)”: no pupils in the top 25% and 10–15% in the next 25%.

These schools are most common in urban areas where alternatives of types 1–5 are available. 8. “sub-secondary modern”: intake heavily weighted toward the low end of the ability range. This ranking is reflected in performance tables, and thus the schools’ attractiveness to parents. Independent schools Approximately 7% of English schoolchildren attend privately run independent schools. (Public Schools) Education at independent schools is usually chargeable. Such schools, some of which are boarding schools, cover primary and secondary education and charge between ? 2500 to ? 0000 per year. Some schools offer scholarships for those with particular skills or aptitudes or bursaries to allow less well-off students to attend. The Independent school system usually teaches separate sciences (Biology, Chemistry and Physics)and takes the highest 50% of pupils in the entrance exam (the 1st form exam) most have a prep dept or a pre prep dept of a kindergarten or a sixth form or a senior school. Some may be single sex. Usually Public schools age between 2. 5/3 and 11 transferring to 11 – 18. some cover 2. 5 – 16 but this is unusual. Most take 7 – 18.

Education otherwise than by schooling The Education Act requires parents to ensure their children are educated either by attending school or otherwise. Small but increasing numbers of parents are choosing the otherwise option. This style of education is often referred to as Elective Home Education. The education can take many different forms ranging from homeschooling where a school style curriculum is followed at home to unschooling where any semblance of structure in the educational provision is abandoned. Parents do not need permission to educate their own children.

There is no requirement to follow the National Curriculum or to give formal lessons. Parents do not need to be qualified teachers, or to follow school hours or terms. Parents who choose to educate their children otherwise than at school have to finance the education provision themselves. Educational Ladder in Basic Education of England |Age on 1st Sept |Year |Curriculum stage |Schools | |3 |Nursery |Foundation Stage Nursery school | |4 |Reception | | | Population | 51 million | 92 million | | Type of |Constitutional monarchy | Presidential, Unitary | |Government |and |form of government | | |Parliamentary democracy. | | Economy | | Newly industrialized | | |mixed market economy |Country | | | | | |Geographical setting |Mountainous terrain |an archipelago | | | |of 7,107 islands | | Climate |temperate maritime climate | has a tropical climate | | | |and is usually | | | |hot and humid | | Religion | Anglicanism and | Roman Catholic | | |Roman Catholic | | | Medium of instruction | English | English | |Educational Ladder | 6-7-3 | 6-4-4 | |Perennial issues |1.

Higher educational |Medium of instruction | | |Funding in England |Additional 2 years in basic | | |2. Parent’s guidance |Education | | |3. Overcrowding, within |School year | | |subjects and across the |Lack of facilities | | |curriculum as a whole. |Subject/curriculum content | | |4.

Problems in teacher |Gender issue | | |Education |Drop out rate | | |5. Culture informality |Low Quality of Teachers | | |6. Confusion over A-level | | | |standard | | | |4. | |Objectives of education | | | |Academic year | | | |Classes from: |September to June |June to March | |Qualified Teachers for |Has Qualified teacher |LET(Licensure Examination for Teachers) | |Basic education |Status (QTS) | | | | | | | | | | Insights and Recommendations Because England, as part of United Kingdom, is a developed country, with the world’s sixth largest economy and the world’s first industrialized country, they have enough funds to establish a good program in their education. I don’t question on how they handle their education system because it is very good and appropriate to their country. And if you’re going to ask me, their system is a good example for the Philippines and if applied to our country, we can also attain what and where their education now.

But the big problem is, does the Government have enough funds to establish such programs and facilities in every school in our country? I don’t think so. In my own opinion, I think, our education system is good enough to produce a competitive students. And I think that the true problem is not the system but in the people itself, because I strongly believe that our failure to develop discipline, is failure of a perfect system. Filipinos are very much aware of there rights, but fail to know their obligation that’s why there is no balance in education as well as the government. And maybe, that is the reason why Filipinos are is in the altered state of consciousness. Levels of education in the Philippines Level/Grade |Typical age | |Preschool | |Various optional programs |Under 6 | |Nursery |3-4 | |Kinder |4-5 | |Preparatory |5-6 | |Elementary School | |1st Grade |6–7 | |2nd Grade |7–8 | |3rd Grade |8–9 | |4th Grade |9–10 | |5th Grade 10–11 | |6th Grade |11–12 | |High school | |1st year high school (Freshman) |12-13 | |2nd year high school (Sophomore) |13-14 | |3rd year high school (Junior) |14-15 | |4th year high school (Senior) |15–16 | |Post-secondary education | |Tertiary education (College or University) |Ages vary (usually four years, | | |referred to as Freshman, | | |Sophomore, Junior and | | |Senior years) | |Vocational education |Ages vary | |Graduate education | |Adult education | Principles and general objectives of education In the Philippines the education system aims to:                   ? Provide a broad general education that will assist each individual in society to attain his/her potential as a human being, and enhance the range and quality of the individual and the group;                ? Help the individual participate in the basic functions of society and acquire the essential educational foundation for his/her development into a productive and versatile citizen;               ? Train the nation’s manpower in the middle-level skills required for national development;               ?

Develop the high-level professions that will provide leadership for the nation, advance knowledge through research, and apply new knowledge for improving the quality of human life;                        ? Respond effectively to changing needs and conditions through a system of educational planning and evaluation. Current educational priorities and concerns The growing awareness of the benefits of education, the constitutional provision (a new constitution was adopted in 1987) for free and compulsory elementary education, the demand for education relevance and responsiveness to changing societal needs and the alarming rate of increase in the country’s population have contributed to the problem of providing education for all, a problem which becomes more serious each year.

The Department of Education, Culture and Sports (now the Department of Education, DepED) has attempted to implement educational reforms, programmes and projects to address the key issues of access and quality of basic education, relevance and efficiency of the education system. However, many problems are besetting education in the Philippines. Among the school-related causes are the unqualified and poorly trained teachers, inadequate facilities and equipment, and lack of instructional materials (textbooks and teacher’s manuals). Non-school factors include poverty, low educational attainment and illiteracy of parents, and poor health and nutrition.

In recent years, the DepEd has pursued several development programmes and projects through government funding and overseas economic co-operation both multilateral and bilateral. The strategies to improve education include overall review of elementary and secondary education, universal access to and quality of education (notably by emphasizing teaching of English, science, technology and mathematics), provision of alternative delivery schemes (such as multigrade teaching, mobile teaching, and instructional management by parents, community and teachers in disaster areas), management training for principals and school administrators, development of research, improvement of school libraries and teachers’ welfare.

Technical and vocational education was also revised in an effort to cope with rapid technological advancements and to provide young people with more meaningful preparation for their future employment. The strategies include curriculum development, improvement of pre- and in-service education of teachers in both public and private schools, updated instructional materials in various fields, and upgrading of equipment for both public and private institutions. At the higher education level, the strategies include improving access of the poor and disadvantaged, improving quality––notably by focusing on pre-service and in-service training of teachers––, liberalizing policies for private schools, rationalizing state colleges and universities (SUCs), and strengthening linkages with government professional boards for evaluation.

Among the development programmes implemented in recent years, the following should be mentioned:              The Elementary and Secondary Education Project: the aim of the project has been to meet the sector’s requirement for essential physical resources (facilities and equipment), especially in educationally and economically disadvantaged areas; improve the professional competence of teachers and school administrators; expand the population’s basic knowledge and the skills of children at risk of dropping out of school as well as illiterate out-of-school youth and adults; and further develop DepEd institutional capacities in planning and management of the education system.

Implementing the New Secondary Education Curriculum (1992-93): mass training of Grade IV teachers was undertaken, and complemented with the production and delivery of textbooks and teachers’ manuals to fully support the implementation of the new curriculum. The physical facilities component of the programme also provided for the construction of 673 packages of equipped and furnished academic classrooms, workshops and science laboratories to augment the accommodations problem in the secondary level. The School Building Programme: this programme provides for the construction of classrooms, science laboratories and multi-purpose workshops, and the provision of equipment for instruction for selected elementary and secondary schools within the typhoon belt of the country and in remote and rural areas.

Science Teaching Improvement Project: this project aims to develop science equipment through research, prototype production, standards setting and tests, and expertise within the educational sector through workshops, seminars, and training of teachers and staff locally and abroad. Science Equipment Project: this project addresses the pressing need of the public school system for instructional materials and equipment. The National Science Equipment Centre and three Regional Distribution/Service Centres were developed and institutionalized for the purpose of developing, testing, producing, and distributing science equipment to the public secondary schools.

Rationalizing programme offerings of state colleges and universities on a regional basis: this programme aims at encourage specialization in each SUC and intra-regionally among SUCs with special emphasis on capital and land-intensive courses such as agriculture, technology and engineering, and technical education. It encourages  regional co-ordination among SUCs to minimize duplication of programme offerings. Among the achievements, benefits and performance of the education system over a ten-year period (1986-95), the following should be mentioned:          ? Education has been given the highest budgetary priority in the national government budget. The New Elementary School Curriculum (NESC) and the New Secondary School Curriculum (NSSC) have been fully implemented. ? Free public secondary education has been implemented. ? The programme of assistance for low-income students and faculty in private schools has been expanded. ? The Values Education Framework has been formulated and implemented. ? Centres of excellence in teacher education have been established. ? Professionalization of the teaching profession has been achieved through the Philippine Teachers Professionalization Act of 1994. ? The National Elementary Achievement Test for Grade VI pupils and the National Secondary Achievement Test for Form IV high school students have been administered. Student contact time has increased through a lengthened school calendar and additional time for English, science and mathematics. ? Science education has been strengthened through the establishment of regional science high schools, the formulation and implementation of the Science and Technology Education Plan, the establishment of the Regional Science Teaching Centres, and the organization of the National Science Teaching Instrumentation Centre. ? Policies governing private education have been liberalized––notably as regards curriculum requirements and tuition fee policy––to promote efficiency, autonomy and responsiveness. ? Educational performance during the eriod has improved, as indicated by the literacy rate, the improved enrolment rate at the primary and secondary levels, the decrease of repetition rates, and the provision of textbooks and instructional materials. .                 Laws and other basic regulations concerning education In the Philippines, education is a public or state function. Public elementary and secondary education is supported by the national government, the former as mandated by the Constitution (1987), which states that “the State shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education at all levels and shall take appropriate steps to make such education accessible to all”, and the latter by Republic Act No. 6655 (Free Secondary Education Act).

Specific provisions on education upon which all decrees, policies, regulations, and rules on education are based, are provided in the Constitution. These are expressly stated by way of the constitutional mandate, Presidential decree, and other legal provisions. The objectives of formal education at the elementary, secondary, and tertiary levels as well as those of non-formal education are specified in the Education Act of 1982. The Republic Act No. 6728 deals with private education, notably by setting common minimum physical facilities and curricular requirements for all schools and by liberalizing the subject content of values education. The creation of the Commission on Higher Education by Republic Act No. 722 and of the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority separated these entities from the Department of Education where they originally belonged. The Philippine Teachers Professionalization Act, Republic Act No. 7836, was issued in 1994. The Literacy Co-ordination Council, an interagency body administratively attached to DECS, was created by Republic Act No. 7165 to carry out State policy to eradicate illiteracy. The House Bill No. 1875 entitled “An Act to Strengthen Teacher Education in the Philippines by Establishing Lead Teacher Training Institutions, Appropriating Funds Therefore and for Other Purposes” deals with the improvement of teacher education.

The Republic Act No. 7796, otherwise known as the Technical Education and Skills Development Act of 1994, aims to encourage the full participation of and mobilize the industry, labour, local government units and technical-vocational education and training (TVET) institutions in the skills development of the country’s human resources. In August 2001, Republic Act No. 9155, otherwise called the Governance of Basic Education Act, was passed transforming the name of the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) to the Department of Education (DepEd) and redefining the role of field offices (regional offices, division offices, district offices and schools).

This Act provides the overall framework for: (i) school heads empowerment by strengthening their leadership roles; and (ii) school-based management within the context of transparency and local accountability. The goal of basic education is to provide the school age population and young adults with skills, knowledge, and values to become caring, self-reliant, productive and patriotic citizens. According to legislation, primary education is free and compulsory for children aged 7-12. Secondary education is free but not compulsory. Administration and management of the education system The Department of Education (DepEd) is the principal government agency responsible for education and manpower development.

The mission of the Department is to provide quality basic education that is equitably accessible to all and lay the foundation for life-long learning and service for the common good. The Department is primarily responsible for the formulation, planning, implementation and co-ordination of the policies, standards, regulations, plans, programmes and projects in areas of formal and non-formal education. It also supervises all basic education institutions, both public and private, and provides for the establishment and maintenance of a complete, adequate and integrated system of education relevant to the goals of national development. The Bureau of Elementary Education (BEE) is responsible for providing access and quality elementary education for all.

It also focuses on social services for the poor and directs public resources and efforts at socially disadvantaged regions and specific groups. The Bureau of Secondary Education (BSE) is responsible for providing access and quality secondary education. Its aim is to enable every elementary graduate to have access to secondary education. It improves access to secondary education by establishing schools in municipalities where there are none and reviews the overall structure of secondary education as regards curriculum, facilities, and teachers’ in-service training. The Bureau of Non-formal Education (BNFE) is responsible for contributing to the improvement of the poor through literacy and continuing education programmes.

Its aim is to provide focused basic services to the more disadvantaged sections of the population to improve their welfare and contribute to human resource development. The Bureau of Physical Education and School Sports (BPESS) is responsible for physical fitness promotion, school sports development, cultural heritage revival (Kundiman Fiesta), natural heritage conservation, and values development. Its aim is to inculcate desirable values such as self-discipline, honesty, teamwork, sportsmanship, excellence and others and make the Filipino youth fit to respond adequately to the demands, requirements, challenges and opportunities that the next century may bring. The functions of the BPESS were absorbed by the Philippine Sports Commission in August 1999.

Attached agencies to the Department are the National Museum, National Library, National Historical Institute, and Records Management and Archives Office. Other offices are the Instructional Materials Corporation, Instructional Materials Council, Educational Development Projects Implementing Task Force, Educational Assistance Policy Council, National Youth and Sports Development Board, National Social Action Council and Teacher Education Council. The main objective of the cultural agencies of the Department is to preserve, conserve, restore and enrich the cultural heritage, customs and traditions. The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) was established through the enactment of Republic Act No. 796 otherwise known as the Technical Education and Skills Development Act of 1994. This Act aims to encourage the full participation of and mobilize the industry, labour, local government units and technical-vocational education and training (TVET) institutions in the skills development of the country’s human resources. Overall, TESDA formulates manpower and skills plans, sets appropriate skills standards and tests, coordinates and monitors manpower policies and programs, and provides policy directions and guidelines for resource allocation for the TVET institutions in both the private and public sectors. The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) is independent and separate from the DepEd.

The Commission is responsible for formulating and implementing policies, plans and programmes for the development and efficient operation of the system of higher education in the country. Its coverage is both public and private higher education institutions as well as degree-granting programmes in all post-secondary educational institutions. The creation of CHED was part of a broad agenda for reforms in the country’s education system, outlined by the Congressional Commission on Education in 1992. Part of the reforms is the trifocalization of the education sector. The three governing bodies in the education sector are the CHED for tertiary and graduate education, the DepEd for basic education, and the TESDA for TVET and middle level education.

There is an imperative need to strengthen and streamline the internal management of educational institutions in order to achieve efficiency and responsiveness to trends and challenges of the next millennium. This could notably be done through decentralizing decision-making authority, reviewing staffing and personnel policies, developing the school as initiator of innovation and improvement, liberalizing policies to ensure competitiveness, autonomy and responsiveness, and streamlining processes for delivery of inputs and services. A recent policy thrust of the DepEd is the empowerment of school principals. The principal shall assume more administrative authority and the corresponding accountability for improving teaching competencies and pupils’ achievement.

The policy gives principals the authority to: manage the school’s funds for maintenance and other operating expenses; raise additional funds for the school through Parent-Teachers and Community Associations; design and develop his/her own school improvement programme in collaboration with parents and community leaders; participate in the selection, recruitment and promotion of teachers; plan and develop an innovative curriculum, using the national curriculum as a framework. The Decentralization Programme is being implemented by transferring substantive decision-making powers to the school level. Pre-school education Pre-school education consists of nurseries and kindergartens that cater to children aged 3-6. This level of education is not compulsory. Primary education Elementary education is compulsory and provides basic education to pupils aged 7-12.

It consists of six years of study except in a few schools––mainly private––offering a seven-year course. Elementary education is organized into two levels: primary, which covers Grades I-IV; and intermediate, which covers Grades V and VI (or VII). After completing the six-year elementary programme, pupils receive a certificate of graduation. Secondary education Secondary education (high school) is a continuation of the basic education provided at the first level. It is expanded to include learning (general education) and training in basic employable skills (vocational/technical education). This covers a period of four years of formal schooling and is addressed to students aged 13-16.

Tertiary education (higher education) provides prescribed courses of studies which are credited towards degrees in academic disciplines or professions. It includes two-year post-secondary technical and vocational courses, various professional courses, and general higher education, including graduate and post-graduate studies (for students aged 17-25). Normally, a baccalaureate degree takes four years. Graduate and post-graduate courses normally take two to three years to complete. According to the DECS (now DepEd) Order no. 16 of 2001, at the elementary and secondary levels the 2001/02 school year began on 4 June and ended on 27 March of the following year. It consisted of 203 days, or about thirty-three weeks of classes in public schools. The financing of education

Many of the problems of education today are linked to the under-investment in education. The increase in the education budget from 1986 to 1989 was not sustained in the succeeding three-year period. After reaching a peak of 13. 2% of the national budget in 1989, the share of education declined to 11. 7% in 1991. Real per capita expenditures declined starting in 1990. The growth in the nominal size of the education budget was attributed to the growth of salary inputs which account for about 70% of total education expenditures. The level of spending is very much below those of other ASEAN countries. Actual expenditure per student increased from 783 pesos (P) in 1986 to P1,380 in 1994 at the elementary level.

During the same period, a slight decline was observed at the secondary level from P1,271 to P1,257 per student. However, education has been given the highest budgetary priority in the national government budget in recent years. Realignments within the DepEd budget have been made to augment the financial resources for elementary education. In addition, two-thirds of the President’s Social Fund have been committed primarily to establish new schools in barangays without an elementary school. The share of education in the national budget increased to 14% in 1995. The education budget (DepEd and state universities and colleges) increased from P13. 13 billion in 1986 to P53. 7 billion in 1995.

The average teachers’ salary increased from P1,553 per month in 1986 to P5,902 which is probably the highest rate of increase among the various professional groups in the national government. To implement the Master Plan for Basic Education (1996-2005), it is estimated that P50 billion will be allocated for the modernization of basic education in the next ten years. The national government is authorized by the Constitution to contribute to the financial support of educational programmes. The DepEd is likewise asked to formulate measures to broaden access to education through financial assistance and other incentives to schools, teachers, and students.

Public elementary schools, national secondary schools, vocational and technical schools, other special schools, and chartered and non-chartered tertiary educational institutions are funded primarily from national funds. Local governments are encouraged to assume the operation of non-national public schools, while the national government provides funds and adequate sources of revenue. Government educational institutions are allowed to receive grants, legacies, and donations for purposes specified by existing laws. The management and use of such income is subject to government accounting and auditing rules and regulations. Private schools throughout the country are funded from capital investments, equity contributions, tuition fees and other school charges, grants, loans, subsidies and other income sources in accordance with current legislation.

The national, regional, provincial, city and municipal governments may also aid school programmes with loans, grants and scholarships to recognize the complementary role of the government and of private schools in the educational system. A number of programmes have been funded through international finance assistance. For instance, the Secondary and Elementary Education Project (1990-94) was financed through a support loan from the World Bank with co-financing by the Overseas Economic Co-operation Fund of Japan. The Philippine-Australia Technical and Vocational Education Project aimed at improving the sub-sector was supported by the Australian bilateral assistance.

The Science Teaching Improvement Project was jointly financed by the German government and the Philippine government. The Science Equipment Project (1989-1992) was implemented with the financial assistance of the German government. Pre-primary education                     Pre-school education at the kindergarten level (age group 5-6 years) must aim to develop children in all aspects (physical, social, emotional, and cognitive) so that they will be better prepared to adjust and cope with life situations and the demands of formal schooling; and to maximize the children’s potential through a variety of carefully selected and meaningful experiences considering their interests and capabilities.

The curriculum focuses on the following areas:                                                                                                                   ¦         Physical development: it includes gross and fine motor co-ordination through play and manipulative activities like games, simple works, etc. ¦        Personal-social development: it involves skills and social behaviors and it includes the development of health habits, independence, abilities to follow rules and routines. Learning about the family and other people is part of the concerns in this area. ¦        Affective development: it includes experiences that help children develop love for God, self, others and the community, and develop awareness of their feelings and sense of the right and wrong. ¦        Cognitive development: it includes the development of communication skills and sensory-perceptual and numeracy concepts and skills.

Communication skills refer to competencies in expressing ideas and feelings both in English and Filipino (oral expression and basic readiness skills of listening, pre-reading and writing). Sensory-perceptual and numeracy skills refer to the ability to observe, discriminate, compare and classify, and to understand, count, read and write numbers. ¦        Creative-aesthetic development: it includes exploration of sounds, music and rhythms, and the development of children’s creative expression through drawing, painting, manipulative activities, etc. Primary education Elementary education provides basic education to pupils aged 7-12. The elementary course comprises six years (in some cases, seven years), the first four years termed primary grades and the last two years, intermediate grades.

The overall mission of elementary education is to enable pupils to acquire a basic preparation that will make them an enlightened, disciplined, self-reliant, God-loving, creative, versatile and productive citizens in a national community. The main objectives of elementary education are:                                         ¦        to provide knowledge and develop the skills, attitudes and values essential to the children’s personal development and necessary for living in and contributing to a developing and changing social milieu;                   ¦        to provide learning experiences aimed at increasing the children’s awareness of and responsiveness to the demands of society, and to prepare them for constructive and effective involvement;                    ¦        to promote and intensify the children’s knowledge of, identification with, and ove for the nation and the people to which they belong;              ¦         to promote work experiences aimed at developing and enhancing the children’s orientation to the world of work and creativity, and to prepare them for an honest and gainful work. Secondary education Elementary school graduates are admitted into the secondary level which is a continuation of the elementary education programme and a preparation for higher education. The secondary course consists of four years. Curricular offerings are classified as either general or vocational/technical secondary. Elementary and secondary education levels are considered basic education. Secondary education is addressed to students aged 13-16. The New Secondary Education Curriculum was implemented in 1992/93. The major subject areas are science, mathematics, technology, Filipino, English, and civics/national culture.

Technical and vocational education was also revised and adapted to technological progress and employment needs in recent years. Assessing learning achievement nationwide National Educational Testing and Research Centre (NETRC) assumes the lead role in the field of educational measurement, evaluation and research as a means of providing information necessary to improve the state of the education system. Among the tests that are annually developed are the National College Entrance Examination (NCEE), the National Technical and Vocational Examination (NTVE), and the Philippine The Educational Placement Test (PEPT), the latter for drop-outs desiring to be re-admitted into the formal system.

The Centre, in collaboration with the Civil Service Commission, annually develops the test for the Philippine Board Examination for Teachers (PBET). The Centre also develops the National Elementary Achievement Test (NEAT) and the National Secondary Achievement Test (NSAT). Higher education As stated in the Long-Term Higher Education Development Plan 2001-2010, the vision for higher education is as follows: The higher education system of the Philippines is a key player in the education and integral formation of professionally competent, service-oriented, principled, and productive citizens. Through its tri-fold function of teaching, research, and extension services, it becomes a prime mover of the nation’s socioeconomic growth and sustainable development.

The missions of higher education institutions are: (i) to educate and train Filipinos for enhanced labor productivity and responsible citizenship in an environment where educational access is equitable; (ii) to inculcate nationalism and patriotism in the hearts and minds of the students and graduates; (iii) to accelerate the development of high-level professionals ready to meet international competition; and (iv) to serve as centers of research and development                 The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) was established by virtue of the Republic Act No. 7722 otherwise known as the 1994 Higher Education Act. The Commission is responsible for the operation of all higher education institutions––both public and private––their policy formulation, planning and programme recommendations. The Commission regulates the establishment or closure of private higher education institutions, their course offerings, curricular development, building specifications and tuition fees. Special education

Special education develops the capabilities of children who are physically, mentally, emotionally, socially or culturally disabled as well as gifted children. Children with special needs are being attended to through modified curricula, special services and physical facilities for the maximum development of their potential. Private education The private sector has been a major provider of educational services, accounting for about 7. 5% of primary enrolment, 32% of secondary enrolment and about 80% of tertiary enrolment. Private schools have proven to be efficient in resource utilization. Per unit costs in private schools are generally lower when compared to public schools. This situation is more evident at the tertiary level. Government regulations have given private ducation more flexibility and autonomy in recent years, notably by lifting the moratorium on applications for new courses, new schools and conversions, by liberalizing tuition fee policy for private schools, by replacing values education for third and fourth years with English, mathematics and natural science at the option of the school, and by issuing the revised Manual of Regulations for Private Schools in August 1992. The Education Service Contracting scheme of the government provides financial assistance for tuition and other school fees of students turned away from public high schools because of enrolment overflows. The Tuition Fee Supplement is geared to students enrolled in priority courses in post-secondary and non-degree programmes including vocational and technical courses.

The Private Education Student Financial Assistance is made available to underprivileged but deserving high school graduates who wish to pursue college/technical education in private colleges and universities. Teaching staff Anyone who chooses a teaching career in the Philippines must hold a degree in teacher education. Teachers in public and private elementary schools must have at least a bachelor’s degree in elementary education. High school teachers are expected to have a bachelor’s degree in secondary education with specialization (a major and a minor) in high school subjects. Both degrees are awarded upon successful completion of approved teacher education courses in recognized institutions.

Teaching in colleges or professional degree programmes at the tertiary level requires at least a master’s degree in a particular area of specialization. A doctorate is required of those who teach courses in graduate programmes. All teachers complete a four-year degree programme. The usual programmes are the Bachelor of Secondary Education and Bachelor of Elementary Education. Specialist programmes are also available in agriculture, business, industrial and physical education. Courses include a core of general education, at least one year of professional education and studies in the major teaching area. Curricula for each programme are approved by the Commission on Higher Education and institutions have flexibility to vary these models.

Until now, the curriculum for the pre-service training is still the 1986 curriculum with some modifications and revisions in accordance with DECS Order No. 3 of 1993, which provides for new minimum requirements in the general education and other components of initial bachelor-level courses of study. Non-education graduates may complete an eighteen-unit Certificate of Professional Education in order to qualify as primary or secondary teachers. After completion of these programmes, the students are required to take the Philippine Board Examination for Teachers to qualify to teach at the elementary and secondary levels. The Magna Carta for Public School Teachers (Republic Act No. 670) enacted in 1966 states in Section 15 that teachers’ salaries “(a) shall compare favourably with those paid in other occupations requiring equivalent or similar qualifications, training and abilities; (b) shall be such as to ensure teachers a reasonable standard of life for themselves and their families; (c) shall be properly graded so as to recognize the fact that certain positions require higher qualifications and greater responsibility than others, provided that the general salary scale be such that the relation between the lowest and highest salary paid will be of reasonable order. ” In the case of the private school teachers, the law also provides that “the remuneration paid to them shall, as a general rule, be comparable to current salary rates for corresponding government positions. ” The teachers’ salary was increased in 1995; however, the average teachers’ salary at present is inadequate as source of livelihood.

The Magna Carta similarly states that “any teacher engaged in actual classroom teaching shall be required to render not more than six hours of actual classroom teaching a day, preparation and correction of exercises and other work incidental to his/her normal teaching duties. ” Secondary teachers shall be assigned to no more than six daily forty-minute periods of instruction. For college, the normal teaching load of a full-time instructor shall be eighteen hours a week. The teaching load of part-time instructors who are full-time employees outside of teaching shall not exceed twelve hours per week. Teachers belong to the government service and they are governed by civil service laws, rules and regulations.

Teachers can only join the service if they meet the prescribed qualifications, such as: appropriate civil service eligibility, bachelor’s degree in education or its equivalent, master’s degree and doctorate degree, good moral standing, etc. Training activities at the national, regional, district and school levels are conducted by the DepEd, teacher education institutions, other government and non-government agencies, and international agencies as part of staff development programmes and to meet in-service training needs of teachers. The Department through linkages with other agencies and associations, initiates, plans and implements in-service training programmes. Such programmes take the form of conventions, conferences, short-term courses, summer institutes, workshops and seminars. These activities are designed for teachers, supervisors and administrators of various levels.

Poor quality of education is due, among other causes, to deficiencies in pre-service training and in-service training of teachers, and unqualified teachers teaching subjects outside their areas of specialization. For instance, only slightly more than half of the mathematics teachers in high school majored in this subject, while only 4% of physics teachers majored in this subject. There is a need for an institutionalized support system to strengthen in-service training, clearly defined career paths and prospects of mobility in the teaching profession to enhance motivation. Also there is the question of regulation of the teaching load, which according to a study conducted revealed that the Filipino teacher has seventy-two tasks other than teaching. In the 1980s, massive staff development programmes were institutionalized.

For 1992, the Bureau of Elementary Education conducted various training programmes at the local level, including seminars and workshops on the maintenance of school facilities and other instructional tools and devices, and on the management of Learning Resource Centres for elementary school administrators, seminars and workshops on effective instructional management of multigrade classes for teachers, and a training course designed to upgrade the competencies of public school teachers in assessing children with special needs. The Supervisory Skills Enhancement Programme was also launched. This programme sought to strengthen the supervisors’ commitment to their role, update their knowledge of the content and process of instruction in their areas of supervision and improve their methodology of evaluating and monitoring teaching-learning. At the first stage of implementation, 1,049 division supervisors participated in the programme. Science and mathematics supervisors underwent an additional week-long training, sponsored by the Department of Science and Technology-Science Education Institute.

The training was intended to enrich the supervisors’ stock of knowledge of the content and methodology in their areas of supervision, especially as 7. 7% of the science supervisors and 18. 2% of the mathematics supervisors were found to be non-specialists in their respective fields. Likewise, a one-week follow-up workshop for 56 fourth-year private high school trainers in technology and home economics was conducted. A total of 35,704 fourth-year teachers from public and private secondary schools underwent training in content, strategies and evaluation in science, mathematics, English, Filipino, social studies, values education, physical education, health education, music, technology and home economics.

While the institutionalization of in-service training is being vigorously pursued, the provision of local and foreign fellowships remains a part of staff development. At the tertiary level, schools prepare their own training programmes. Recently, the College Faculty Development Fund Programme was formulated to help update the competencies of teachers, specifically for the faculty of private colleges and universities. Similarly, faculty members in private colleges and universities were also accorded a chance to pursue graduate education through the Faculty Development Fund. In 1992, a total of twenty-eight college teachers benefited from the fund.

Training programmes have also been organized to upgrade the competencies of vocational/technical subject teachers. Ad hoc bodies of experts i