Chief article: HIV trial

Many HIV-positive people are incognizant that they are infected with the virus. For illustration, less than 1 % of the sexually active urban population in Africa have been tested and this proportion is even lower in rural populations. Furthermore, merely 0.5 % of pregnant adult females go toing urban wellness installations are counselled, tested or have their trial consequences. Again, this proportion is even lower in rural wellness installations. Since givers may hence be unaware of their infection, donor blood and blood merchandises used in medical specialty and medical research are routinely screened for HIV.

HIV-1 proving consists of initial testing with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent check ( ELISA ) to observe antibodies to HIV-1. Specimens with a nonreactive consequence from the initial ELISA are considered HIV-negative unless new exposure to an septic spouse or spouse of unknown HIV position has occurred. Specimens with a reactive ELISA consequence are retested in extra. If the consequence of either duplicate trial is reactive, the specimen is reported as repeatedly reactive and undergoes confirmatory proving with a more specific auxiliary trial ( e.g. , Western smudge or, less normally, an immunofluorescence check ( IFA ) ) . Merely specimens that are repeatedly reactive by ELISA and positive by IFA or reactive by Western smudge are considered HIV-positive and declarative of HIV infection. Specimens that are repeatedly ELISA-reactive on occasion provide an indeterminate Western smudge consequence, which may be either an uncomplete antibody response to HIV in an septic individual, or nonspecific reactions in an clean individual. Although IFA can be used to corroborate infection in these equivocal instances, this check is non widely used. Generally, a 2nd specimen should be collected more than a month subsequently and retested for individuals with undetermined Western smudge consequences. Although much less normally available, nucleic acid testing ( e.g. , viral RNA or proviral DNA elaboration method ) can besides assist diagnosing in certain state of affairss. In add-on, a few tried specimens might supply inconclusive consequences because of a low measure specimen. In these state of affairss, a 2nd specimen is collected and tested for HIV infection.Modern HIV testing is highly accurate. The opportunity of a false-positive consequence in the two-step testing protocol is estimated to be 0.0004 % to 0.0007 % in the general U.S. population. [ 1 ]


Chief article: AIDS pandemic

Estimated prevalence of HIV among immature grownups ( 15-49 ) per state at the terminal of 2005.

Disability-adjusted life twelvemonth for HIV and AIDS per 100,000inhabitants.

no information ?10 10-25 25-50 50-100 100-500 500-1000 1000-2500 2500-5000 5000-7500 7500-10000 10000-50000 ?50000

UNAIDS and the WHO estimate that AIDS has killed more than 25million people since it was first recognized in 1981, doing it one of the most destructive pandemics in recorded history. Despite recent improved entree to antiretroviral intervention and attention in many parts of the universe, the AIDS pandemic claimed an estimated 2.8million ( between 2.4 and 3.3million ) lives in 2005 of which more than half amillion ( 570,000 ) were kids.

In 2007, between 30.6 and 36.1 million people were believed to populate with HIV, and it killed an estimated 2.1million people that twelvemonth, including 330,000 kids ; there were 2.5 million new infections.

Sub-Saharan Africa remains by far the worst-affected part, with an estimated 21.6 to 27.4million people presently populating with HIV. Twomillion [ 1.5-3.0million ] of them are kids younger than 15 old ages of age. More than 64 % of all people populating with HIV are in sub-Saharan Africa, as are more than three quarters of all adult females populating with HIV. In 2005, there were 12.0million [ 10.6-13.6million ] AIDS orphans populating in sub-Saharan Africa 2005. South & A ; South East Asia are second-worst affected with 15 % of the sum. AIDS histories for the deceases of 500,000 kids in this part. South Africa has the largest figure of HIV patients in the universe followed by Nigeria. India has an estimated 2.5 million infections ( 0.23 % of population ) , doing India the state with the 3rd largest population of HIV patients. In the 35 African states with the highest prevalence, mean life anticipation is 48.3 years—6.5 old ages less than it would be without the disease.

The latest rating study of the World Bank ‘s Operations Evaluation Department assesses the development effectivity of the World Bank ‘s country-level HIV/AIDS aid defined as policy duologue, analytic work, and imparting with the expressed aim of cut downing the range or impact of the AIDS epidemic. This is the first comprehensive rating of the World Bank ‘s HIV/AIDS support to states, from the beginning of the epidemic through mid-2004. Because the Bank purposes to help in execution of national authorities programmes, their experience provides of import penetrations on how national AIDS programmes can be made more effectual.

The development of HAART as effectual therapy for HIV infection has well reduced the decease rate from this disease in those countries where these drugs are widely available. As the life anticipation of individuals with HIV has increased in states where HAART is widely used, the go oning spread of the disease has caused the figure of individuals populating with HIV to increase well.

In Africa, the figure of MTCT and the prevalence of AIDS is get downing to change by reversal decennaries of steady advancement in kid endurance. States such as Uganda are trying to control the MTCT epidemic by offering VCT ( voluntary guidance and proving ) , PMTCT ( bar of mother-to-child transmittal ) and ANC ( ante-natal attention ) services, which include the distribution of antiretroviral therapy.

STAGE AIDS pandemic:

Initially started with the transmittal in the homosexual ( homosexual ) . Because among homosexual groups besides have a bisexual, so the infection spread to the heterosexual population who often altering spouses.

In the 2nd phase, the infection began to distribute on the cocottes and their clients. In the 3rd phase, developing transmittal on whore married woman from clients. In the 4th stage began to increase transmittal to babies and kids of female parents with HIV.


Chief article: Beginning of AIDS

See History of known instances and spread for early instances of HIV / AIDS

HIV is thought to hold originated in non-human Primatess in sub-Saharan Africa and transferred to worlds early in the twentieth century. The first paper acknowledging a form of timeserving infections was published on June 4, 1981.

Both types of the virus are believed to hold originated in West-Central Africa and jumped species ( zoonotic disease ) from a non-human archpriest to worlds. HIV-1 is thought to hold originated in southern Cameroon after leaping from wild Pan troglodytess ( Pan troglodytes Troglodytess ) to worlds during the 20th century. It evolved from a Simian Immunodeficiency Virus ( SIVcpz ) . HIV-2, on the other manus, may hold originated from the Sooty Mangabey ( Cercocebus atys ) , an Old World monkey of Guinea-Bissau, Gabon, and Cameroon.

New World Monkeys are an interesting exclusion to the transmittal of HIV. Their unsusceptibility is believed to be caused by retrotransposition of the Cyclophilin cistron into an noncoding DNA of TRIM5. The consequence is fusion cistron that provides the bird of Minerva monkey with opposition to HIV-1 infection. [ 2 ]

Prevention. Three chief lines ( paths ) the entry of HIV into the organic structure is through sexual contact, adjacency ( exposure ) with fluid or septic tissue, and from female parent to fetus or infant during the period around birth ( perinatal period ) . Although HIV can be found in spit, cryings and piss of septic people, but there is no record of instances of infections due to these fluids, therefore the hazard of infection can by and large be ignored.

Intercourse. The bulk of HIV infection from unprotected sexual dealingss between persons, one of whom has HIV. Heterosexual contact is the chief manner of HIV infection in the universe. During sexual intercourse, merely the male rubber or female rubber can cut down the possibility of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases and the possibility of gestation. The best grounds now shows that typical rubber usage reduces the hazard of HIV transmittal to about 80 % in the long tally, although this benefit is greater if rubbers are used right on every juncture. Male rubbers made from latex, if used right without oil-based lubricators, is the lone one of the most effectual engineering today to cut down the sexual transmittal of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. Side rubber makers recommend that oil lubricators like crude oil jelly, butter, and lard non be used with latex rubbers because these stuffs can fade out latex rubbers and do holes. If necessary, the makers recommend utilizing water-based lubricators. Oil-based lubricators are used with polyurethane rubbers. Female rubber is an alternate to male rubbers made of polyurethane, which allows it to be used with oil-based lubricators. Female rubber is larger than male rubbers and holding an unfastened terminal of the annular hard, and designed to be inserted into the vagina. Female rubber has a ring that makes the interior of the rubber remains in the vagina – to infix the female rubber, the ring should be pressed. Problem with rubbers is that now adult females are still seldom available and the monetary value is non low-cost for big Numberss of adult females. Initial surveies showed that with the handiness of female rubbers, sexual dealingss with protective overall addition relation to unprotected sexual intercourse so that the female rubber is an HIV bar scheme is of import.

The survey of one twosome who are infected show that with consistent rubber usage, HIV infection rate of clean spouse are below 1 % per twelvemonth. Prevention scheme has been good recognized in developed states. However, research on the behavioural and epidemiological in Europe and North America showed the presence of immature minorities who remain at high hazard activities despite cognizing about the HIV / AIDS, therefore disregarding the hazards of HIV infection. However, HIV transmittal has declined between user drugs, and HIV transmittal by blood transfusion to be rather rare in developed states.

Managing of the AIDS. Until now there is no vaccinum or remedy for HIV or AIDS. The lone method known to bar based on the turning away of contact with the virus or, if it fails, antiretroviral intervention straight after contact with the virus significantly, called post-exposure prophylaxis ( PEP ) [ 3 ] . PEP has a four-week dosing agenda that requires a batch of clip. PEP besides has side effects such as diarrhoea is non fun, non experiencing good, sickness, and weariness.

Antiviral therapy

Handling of recent HIV infection is antiretroviral therapy extremely active ( extremely active antiretroviral therapy, HAART abbreviated ) . This therapy has been really utile for people infected with HIV since 1996, Internet Explorer after the find of HAART utilizing peptidase inhibitors. HAART best option right now, is a combination of at least three drugs ( called a “ cocktail ) , which consists of at least two sorts ( or ” classes “ ) antiretroviral stuffs. This combination is normally used nucleoside linear contrary RNA polymerase inhibitor ( or nucleoside ) with peptidase inhibitors, or with non-nucleoside contrary RNA polymerase inhibitors ( NNRTIs ) . Because HIV disease advancement faster in kids than in grownups, the recommendations were more aggressive intervention for kids than for grownups. In developing states that provide HAART intervention, a physician will see the measure of viral burden, CD4 reduced velocity, and mental preparedness of patients, when taking when to get down intervention early. HAART intervention of symptoms and enables stable viraemia ( the sum of virus in the blood ) in patients, but he was non cured from HIV or extinguish the symptoms. HIV-1 in high degrees are frequently immune to HAART and the symptoms return after intervention is stopped. After all, it took more than one life-time to clear HIV infection utilizing HAART. Even so, many people with HIV have a great betterment in general wellness and quality of their lives, ensuing in a drastic lessening in the degrees of morbidity ( morbidity ) and decease rate ( mortality ) due to HIV. Without HAART intervention, the alteration in HIV infection to AIDS occurs at an norm ( average ) between nine to ten old ages, and subsequent endurance clip after undertaking AIDS was 9.2 months. The application is considered HAART increases survival clip of patients during 4 to 12 old ages. For some other patients, likely totaling more than 50 per centum, HAART intervention gives consequences far from optimum. This is because of the side effects / intervention effects can non be tolerated, old antiretroviral therapy is non effectual, and specific HIV infection immune drug. Disobedience and upset in implementing antiretroviral therapy is the chief ground why most persons fail to profit from the application of HAART. There are assorted grounds for being disobedient and non regular for the execution of HAART. Psychosocial issues is a major deficiency of entree to wellness installations, deficiency of societal support, psychiatric unwellness, and drug maltreatment. HAART intervention is besides complex, because of assorted combinations of pills, dose frequence, repast limitations, and others that must be run on a regular footing. Assorted side effects that besides lead to reluctance to on a regular basis in the execution of HAART, including lipodystrophy, dislipidaemia, insulin opposition, increased hazard of cardiovascular system, and inborn abnormalcies in babes born. Anti-retroviral drugs were expensive, and the bulk of septic persons in the universe does non hold entree to intervention and attention for HIV and AIDS. [ 4 ]

Medicinal intervention for sick person AIDS. Constraints faced for the intervention is expensive. Side consequence of expensive drugs and the handiness of cost for the execution of inoculation, doing the outgrowth of new favoritism issue that is rich and the hapless. Rich with HIV will be able to supply treble the cost for drugs, but the hapless continue to decease. The people who infected by virus HIV, normally avoided by others, because the others think that they are bad people and unresponsibility individual. Because of that, for dainty the patient need particular attending and support full. Attention of household is the most of import, because the household is the lone 1 who know status of them. Families with at least understand and want to help those affected by AIDS during intervention. Opportunity of populating for people with AIDS is really little, but if you continue to be given support and encouragement, at least they can still bask life and still experience the love.


Prevention is better and cost-efficient compared with intervention attempts. For that we need socialised AIDS bar attempts for all degrees of society, including youth-student group.

[ 1 ] hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HIV-AIDS

[ 2 ] hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HIV-AIDS

[ 3 ] hypertext transfer protocol: //www.google.co.id/search? client=firefox-a & A ; channel=s & A ; hl=id & A ; source=hp & A ; q=aids & A ; meta= & A ; btnG=Telusuri+dengan+Google

[ 4 ] hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aids # Antiviral_therapy