Task 1 Current management practice requires managers to use a variety of motivational techniques when leading their teams. Define, analyse and compare recognised motivational theories, explain how these are used within your own organisation making recommendations to the most suitable and effective techniques. Motivation In my opinion there may be scope to say that managers may be unconscious to motivational techniques if they have self-starting team around them.
If we consider that a well measured recruitment process or selection to join the team based on Belbin’s team Inventory (2004) should evolve to produce productive results based on the team’s objectives quite effectively in theory but there is always other considerations that each team member including the leader on what is needed a means to motivate. Unfortunately, life is not ideal for companies and it is beneficial to understand how to motivate people in order to encourage them to fulfil their potential.
Handy (1999) tells us that there were three traditional motivational theories that theorists based their models. Using satisfaction as a motivator; there is no hard evidence to support that this method will produce increased productivity but there is however reduced levels of absenteeism and staff turnover if the conditions and staff morale is good and or if they get on well with their team leader and the rest of the group.
Herzberg’s (1993) two-factor theory lends to the idea that in a work situation you can distinguish between factors that satisfy and those that dissatisfy. If you are able to deal with the dissatisfying issues, it may not necessarily then become a satisfying or motivational factor. Herzberg identified that maintenance factors or hygiene are things such as company policies, administration, supervision, salary, interpersonal relationships and physical working conditions. These are necessary conditions to maintain motivation successfully.
Herzberg also grouped factors what he called satisfiers or motivators. That list included achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility and advancement. From these factors of hygiene and motivators, it is said that good hygiene will deal with ‘Why work here? ’ and motivators will beg the question ‘Why work harder? ’ Handy (1999) explains that the incentive theory can be productive as it relates to the extra effort or one of the ‘E’ factors being applied resulting in reward in some shape or form, be it money, status or independence.
Taylor (1947) discusses that staff being offered higher wages motivated them to meet their precisely calculated targets each week. There are conditions to this theory though, firstly, the person must believe that the extra effort is worth the reward, secondly, their performance has to be measurable and be obviously accredited to them only, thirdly, the reward on offer must be desirable to the person and finally, the increased performance must not become the minimum amount of work expected from the person.
Generally this is an effective theory, however if any of these conditions are not applicable (excluding work expected) then it results will fall into the satisfaction theory and lastly, if as a result of the additional effort being expected as the norm, then the creditability of that manager would be at risk by their employee’s. The theory on intrinsic motivation is the idea things are done simply for the enjoyment or the contentment from doing something that gives us pleasure. A person is prepared to work and needs no reward or financial incentive to act as a factor in his or her motivation to work.
Abraham Maslow (1970) wrote about the hierarchy of needs first in 1943 and this is still used to this day by managers to understand, predict and influence employee motivation. Maslow was able to group humans needs and organised these into different classes to form a hierarchy on five levels. The first relates to survival or physiological needs such as food, water, shelter, warmth and sleep. The second is all about security or safety needs for example job security and earning a wage, third, social needs, that feeling of belonging and being accepted by others.
Fourth, Ego-status, to be held in esteem by others and themselves, this can by satisfied by power, prestige, and self confidence. The final stage is self-actualisation, is around the desire to maximise the skills and talents you possess. To reach the final stage is belief to make us try harder and this theory may not apply to all in this particular order for example the more creatively minded my strive for self actualisation over their needs for friendship and belonging to a group. Within my team in work there are a variety of motivation theories that apply ranging from McClelland’s n-pow person (Bussinessballs. om) who is ‘authority motivated’. This driver produces a need to be influential, effective and to make an impact. In this case there is a strong need to lead and for their ideas to prevail. There is also motivation and need towards increasing personal status and prestige to intrinsic motivation that comes from rewards inherent to a task or activity. Somebody that is intrinsically motivated when engaging in an activity expect no apparent reward except for the activity itself, or even Maslow’s security needs (1970) in relation to safety and security.
Maslow quotes that security needs are important for survival, but they are not as demanding as the physiological needs. An example of this is the desire for steady employment, health insurance, safe neighbourhoods, and shelter from the environment. There is a member of staff who has been with the company for just over two years, a competent tutor who has had additional responsibility in the past has had the opportunity to be the lead tutor at a new centre and so they are ltra enthusiastic about the opportunity and the additional responsibility for a small budget, having to draft weekly summaries for flash reports to senior managers. McClelland would describe this as an n-ach person who is ‘achievement motivated’ and therefore seeks achievement, attainment of realistic but challenging goals, and advancement in their job. McClelland tells us that in this case there is a strong need for feedback as to achievement and progress, and a need for a sense of accomplishment. (BusinessBalls. com)
Hersey et al (2007) characterised leadership styles in terms of support and direction that a leader gives to their follows (Annex A). In this new role the member of staff is D3 (ibid) and so S2 (ibid) is applicable in this case as the centre manager still makes the final decision and is kept in the loop regarding everything going on. Task 2 Using underlying theory describe the developmental stage of your team, taking into consideration the individual roles within it. Discuss and explain how this information can be used when determining managerial styles.
Use specific examples to explain how this relates to the managerial styles used within your organisation. Tuckman’s model (1965), evidence that groups go through a range of processes. (Businessballs. com) Starting with forming where there is a high dependence on leader for direction and guidance. There is little agreement in the group other than directed from the team leader. Responsibilities and roles within the group are uncertain. Next, storming where decisions do not come simply within the team.
Group members contest for their place as they attempt to establish themselves in relation to other members of the team and the leader, who may even face challenges from team members. Norming is where the team are largely in agreement and able to compromise and also respond well to facilitation by leader. The group is now able to make decisions but any smaller decisions could be delegated to individuals or small teams within group. Commitment and unity is strong. Performing, at this point the team is now strategically aware. It is clear to the team what and why it is doing what it is doing.
There is a collective vision and the group is now able to stand on its feet. There is a focus on over-achieving goals, and the team makes most of the decisions against criteria agreed with the leader. The team has a high degree of autonomy. Disagreements occur but now they are resolved within the team positively before finally producing the performance targeted. As a cohesive group as described by Carron (1980) goals can be achieved faster and more effectively as the team will be able to anticipate each other actions and be proactive accordingly.
My team completed the Belbin (2004) team role inventory for me to analyse. The focus for me was to find out if there were any major gaps in the team-role descriptions. All except the Plant role had at least one person in double figures however only one person was in double figures for the team worker role, this is not really a surprise as we are all fairly independent and experienced professionals who operate effectively and are definitely in the norming stage as described by Tuckman (1965).
There tends to be difficulty is when certain members of staff are absent there is sometimes dissent in the ranks for example if the centre manager who runs the department using basically McGregor’s Y theory (2006) bordering on Ouchi’s Z theory (1981) which promotes a stable environment for employees, high productivity, morale and satisfaction.
Currently the staff are in the forming stage as staff are motivated and more than capable to complete job requirements and the centre manager, who is dominantly participative in attitude, This is one of three approaches identified by Lewin (1939) the others being authoritarian (which to date in the two years with the company has only been seen once by me and fortunately not towards me) and delegative (sometimes used but always kept informed by delegates of any current situations to feed back to senior management or flash reports), led research to identify different styles of leadership effectively running the centre by rawing on the teams wide range of skills and experiences to agree solutions to future developmental issues or streamlining ineffective actions or procedures at the centre is out or on holiday the senior member of staff who has been with this organisation the longest is expected to fill the role, however as their highest scoring role was Shaper as they are aware according to Belbin (2004) and his allowable weaknesses are prone to provocation and can easily offend peoples feelings adopting an version of McGregor’s X theory (2006).
Effectively the team regresses to the storming stage. They believe that we need to tightly controlled to effect a productive environment but it only causes a reduce in morale even though as it is short term it is tolerated by a group of professionals. We are aware of the pressure they are under but unlike the centre manager who scored highest as a co-ordinator, which through a discussion between the centre manager and myself, believe that the mentality of your answers will change if your role within an organisation has been a constant for a good period of time.
Task 3 Select a team member that you plan to develop. Using underlying theory, explain how you have selected them and planned their development needs. Describe the process you will undertake, using evidence to justify your conclusions. In the pursuit of effectiveness, a member of staff who can be best described by Keirsey (1998) as a phlegmatic at work. This person is quite low-key and very easygoing; they could easily be described as cool and collected.
They have to be patient with the amount of tasks they have to tackle constantly being a front person for the department dealing with internal and external issues and queries all day Their job title is an assistant administrator and they have been requested to provide a practical Curriculum Vitae form for the learners to use during the course to apply for employment or further education positions. This is to utilise their keyboard skills and reduce the workload from the vocational tutor who can contribute but is unable to dedicate enough time for this task.
In the session the learners are given a template to work from initially and then this information is sent to an account assessable by the staff to store and print off if necessary. To ensure that the information is secure, aesthetic and effective, it is the responsibility of the member of staff to provide this service to the learners then save the updated versions in the original account for the vocational tutors and the placement officer to access.
The first thing to be done is to agree with the member of staff the overall goal and how we need to achieve this, secondly discuss skills gaps in relation to the task, identify how they learn best, plan a training session if required and set a date to review effectiveness and evaluate competency. According to Hersey et al (2007) this effectively is a coaching method or S2 (Appendix A) as the communication is two way and agreements are made both parties on how to achieve the overall aim.
Having the initial meeting with this member of staff we have identified their experience using the word processing software is good and they can basically create basic documents and have a sound knowledge of file management however they are not familiar with the E-mail software but have had experience with their own E-mail account at home, so they have some of the relevant skills or D2 (ibid), but may be unable to do the entire job without help as the task is quite new to them and also that they are a visual learner. Visual learners prefer graphs, pictures, and diagrams.
They look for visual representations of information so we agreed that a flow chart (Appendix B) to follow and check against was a good idea and we would run through a practical with an observation and immediate feedback will given to identify if this activity is effective and then agree a review date to assess the effectiveness of their work. So, in conclusion we turn to the annual survey report completed by the Charted Institute for Personnel and Development (2006) who tell us that around a third of employees say that their managers rarely or never discuss their training and development needs and engaged mployees take less sick leave and are less likely to leave their employer. Based on these facts, in my opinion, every manager must make the time and effort to ensure that developmental issues are met in order to thrive in the current economic crises. Bibliography Belbin, M (2004) Management Teams: Why They Succeed or Fail. 2nd edn, London: Butterworth-Heinemann Carron, A (1980) Social Psychology of Sport: Experiential Approach. Longmeadow: Mouvement Publications Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) (2006), Annual Survey Report 2006 How Engaged Are British Employees, CIPD, London
David C McClelland’s motivational needs theory. [Online]. Available from: [Accessed 20 July 2009] Handy, C (1999) Understanding Organizations. 4th edn, London: Penguin Books Hersey et al (2007) Management and Organizational Behaviour: Leading Human Resources. 8th edn, New Jersey: Prentice Hall Herzberg et al (1993) Motivation to Work. 2nd edn, New York: Wiley Keirsey, K (1998) Please Understand Me: 2. Del Mar: Prometheus Nemesis Book Company Lewin et al (1939) Patterns of aggressive behaviour in experimentally created social climates. ournal of Social Psychology, 10(1) pp. 271-99 Maslow, A (1970) Motivation and Personality. 2nd edn, New York: Harper & Row McGregor, D (2006) The Human Side of Enterprise. Revised edn, New York: McGraw-Hill Ouchi, W (1981) Theory Z. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Taylor, F. W (1947) Shop Management and Principles of Scientific Management. New York: Harper & Row Tuckman forming storming norming performing model. [Online]. Available from:[Accessed 20 July 2009] Appendices Annex A – Situational Leadership Chart Annex B – Flow Chart Annex A
Situational Leadership (Blanchard Hersey). [Online]. Available from:< http://www. 12manage. com/methods_blanchard_situational_leadership. html/>[Accessed 20 July 2009] Annex B ———————– Select E-mail Sort by received 3rd person, spelling, grammar, tidy format Review CV to assess if suitable Log into e2e Stockport account Go to CV folder Drag and drop updated e-mail to c. v. folder Open inbox Name of learner update (insert date) in subject box Forward update to e2e Stockport account Name of learner update (insert date) Save document Amend as required