The function of grammar instruction in the Hong Kong English linguistic communication course of study has ever been an of import 1. Despite the coming of communicative linguistic communication instruction and task-based attack, grammar-based direction has formed a outstanding constituent of English lessons. The expressed form-focused direction has been a deep-seated dominating attack in Hong Kong.
Different grammar instruction methodological analysiss which have been proposed in the SLA paradigm prevarication on a continuum between deductive and inductive attack ( Thornbury, 1999 ) . While my original instruction was chiefly conducted through a deductive attack, in which the lesson is teacher-centered and dominated by mechanical borings, pupil ‘s public presentation was unsatisfactory. Motivated by such observations, I decided to transport out this survey on researching the possibility of following an inductive attack for grammar instruction. In a reappraisal of the SLA literature discoursing those attacks, I discovered a prevalence of grammatical consciousness-raising undertakings which stress the scholars ‘ doing inductive find of grammatical information through guided exposure to enriched linguistic communication input.
The intent of this survey was to analyze the usage of grammatical consciousness-raising undertakings as an inductive attack to grammar teaching method in an ESL schoolroom from a scholar position. Comparison is made to traditional deductive attack. In this survey, the undermentioned issues were discussed: the attacks and methods adopted for instruction of grammar in the Hong Kong ESL schoolrooms, the influence of CR undertaking on acquisition and its deduction.
2. Literature Reappraisal
2.1 Consciousness-Raising Undertakings
In the literature, the definition of consciousness-raising ( CR ) undertakings had been encapsulated in assorted ways. Harmonizing to Fotos and Ellis ( 1991 ) , CR undertaking is designed so that pupil can bring on and explicate some grammatical regulations from the presented sentences through interacting and negotiating in little groups. Fotos ( 1994 ) point out that this undertaking provides chances for communicating and promote noticing. It attempts to fit scholars with an apprehension of a specific grammatical characteristic, to develop declaratory instead than procedural cognition of it. Schmidt ( 1994 ) argues that detecting is needfully a witting procedure and is a requirement for larning to take topographic point.
Schmidt ( 1990 ) identifies three degrees of consciousness, perceptual experience, detecting and understanding. The mental procedures of noticing, structuring and restructing allow scholars to form linguistic communication flecibly, uniting elements from grammar and lexis fruitfully. As a consequence, pupils achieve the self-discovery of grammar regulation and self-expression of them in communicating. Exposures to meaningful samples of linguistic communication and plentifulness of chances for practising it freely are indispensable to better pupils ‘ larning public presentation. Explicit cognition about the grammar regulations are considered to be of import for the scholars ‘ L2 acquisition, and CR therefore promote expressed cognition of the mark construction.
Following the theoretical account of CR undertakings as proposed R. Ellis ( 1991 ) , a CR undertaking is divided into several phases. First, it is an orientation to the selected grammar point in order to trip scholars ‘ anterior cognition sing the peculiar grammar point. The following phase is a reading activity in which scholars are to interact with a text exemplifying the usage of the selected grammar point in two ways, foremost groking the text and hold oning its significance and 2nd identifying cases of the mark point in the text. This is so followed by an analytic phase which requires the scholars to ‘unscramble ‘ the words in those cases so as to develop and prove hypotheses sing the grammar regulation that is runing ( Fotos, 2002:147 ) . Learners can discourse the consequences of their several analysis with each other.
In this sense, the scholars engage themselves with both reading and grammar at the same time, which has been advocated in the SLA literature. Knitson states that learning grammar through reading is utile to pull pupils ‘ attending to lingual characteristics of mark linguistic communication. Finally, misconstruing on the portion of the scholars is to be clarified through ‘additional information, description, account and illustration ( Brender, 2001:6 ) , and scholars are so provided with such other consolidation activities as posttest and farther readings ‘with multiple embeddings of the mark construction ‘ ( Fotos, 2002:146 ) .
Following the above treatment on the nature of CR undertakings, it is deserving researching how the usage of such undertakings complies with modern-day SLA theories. This is attempted in two dimesions: justifications of the find acquisition manner and the synergistic manner.
The synergistic nature of CR undertaking is good supported by two influential SLA theories. Harmonizing to the Interaction Hypothesis ( Long, 1996 ) , interaction promotes acquisition if scholars are engaged in negociating for significance, particularly in being of communicating dislocations. Learners are expected to negociate different facets of grammatical information sing the targeted linguistic communication. The significance dialogues originating aid to do input more comprehendible to the scholars and supply them with disciplinary feedback, and push scholars to modify their ain end product.
On the other manus, the Vygotsky ‘s sociocultural theory ( 1986 ) claims that cognition is societal in nature that is constructed through staging. Scaffolding comes from thoughts refering the zone of proximal development ( ZPD ) and socicultural position ( Vygitsky, 1986 and Werthch, 1998 ) . Learning is utile if it challenges the scholars to believe and move in ways that are beyond their existent degree of development. Through scaffolding the participants constructs zones of proximal development and thereby surrogate larning. Contextulization are embedded in what the pupils know by bosom. Prior cognition is considered and used as a foundation of both edifice background and breeze throughing new information Teacher should place what a pupil already knows, construct on that accomplishment set when presenting new constructs. It helps pupils connect their new larning to their anterior cognition via staging.
Teaching grammar has traditionally been dominated by a grammar-translation method where pupils are involved in placing a regulation of grammar on the footing of illustrations. Students are required to use this regulation to a new set of illustrations. Lasrsen-Freeman ( 2000 ) , Richards and Rodgers ( 2002 ) , scholars learn about grammar regulations deductively as they are provided the grammar regulations and illustrations, are told to memorise them and so asked to use the regulations to other illustrations.
With this theoretical account, linguistic communication constructions are presented by the instructor, so practiced in the signifier of spoken or written exercisings, and so used by the scholars in less controlled speech production or composing activities. Although the traditional grammar learning method helps better the pupil ‘s command of the grammatical regulations, the pupils can non utilize these regulations flexibly and suitably in communicating. That is, it prevents the pupil from developing their communicative competency. First, it is teacher-centred. As a consequence, the bulk of the schoolroom clip is spent on the instructors ‘ amplification of English grammar regulations, while all the pupils are either listening or taking notes. Therefore small attending is paid to the development of English communicative competency. Second, memorisation and rote acquisition are the vasoc larning techniques, which can non assist elicit pupil ‘s involvement.
Traditionally, linguistic communication direction has been directed at developing rule-based competency ( cognition of specific grammatical regulations ) through the systematic instruction of pre-selected constructions. This involves the focus-on-forms attack. However, it leads to ensue in pupils larning rote-memorized forms as in internalising abstract regulations.
eahavorism establishes the basic background of exercisings, either unwritten or written in sing linguistic communication as stimulation and response. In extra, it gives a great trade of insigh into the acknowledgment of the usage of controlled observation to detect the Torahs of behaviour. The Bahaviorist theory is based on behavioural wonts and the premise that repeat of behaviours and support will take to command of the fixed cognition that is received from the outside environemnt ( Semple, 2000 ) . Rote regulation meomerizationa nd the grammar interlingual rendition method autumn into a behavioural model. The learning methods that sprung from this doctrine map through drills and memorisation accomplishments and are based on a teacher =-centered environmentt ( hanleys, 1994 ) . Despite its widespread usage, this theory has several unfavorable judgments. Long ( 1988 ) points out that traditional grammar direction is uneffective.
Inductive and Deductive Approach to Teaching Grammar
Approach to grammar instruction: the deductive versus the inductive attack
A considerable sum has been written on how grammatical regulations should be presented.
regulation should be presented deductively: pupil are presented with the regulations straight
pupil have to calculate out the regulation for themselves ( inductive attack )
conveying about a greater learning result as pupil have been intensively working on the regulation for a long clip.
stimulate active and independent attitude towards grammar. US Secret Service will go less dependent on direction.
T constantlt have to be cognizant of incorrect regulations pupil can come up with inductively
US Secret Services are non familiarized with lingual term when utilizing the inductive attack
US Secret Service larn how to cover with lingual concenpts, though non specifically with the term related to it. Linguistic footings can be given after the initiation procedure has been completed. The regulation will so do sense to pupils.
US Secret Service will be able to calculate out regulations for themselves when there is no instructor that will make it for them.