The intent of the undermentioned chapter is to supply a theoretical background to back up the different techniques a transcriber usage during the interlingual rendition procedure. Furthermore, it will develop information related to the text analysis, interlingual rendition methods, and interlingual rendition techniques. All this information will assist the reader to hold a better understanding about what has been established by the experts and how this can assist transcribers to accomplish a translated text that can be understood with truth and effectivity.
Furthermore, this chapter will add the information related to the glossary creative activity and its relevancy non merely to the transcriber by itself but to the interlingual rendition procedure every bit good, making a large difference in the quality and consistence within and across the text, minimising the sum of clip spent on the research and rectification of the footings and in along with doing the text content apprehensible, so both the reader and the transcriber can be at the same footing in significance and at the same time cut down mistakes while understanding the texts.
Finally, it will mention to the relationship between the theories explained and the research inquiries provided in Chapter 1. The purpose of this concluding subdivision is to explicate how this information will be used to garner the needed informations and besides to plan the instruments for the informations aggregation, which will be presented in Chapter 3.
2.1. Text analysis
It is the procedure of decrypting the text to be translated. Harmonizing to Nord ( 2005 ) Most authors on interlingual rendition theory agree that before shiping upon any interlingual rendition the transcriber should analyze the text comprehensively, since this appears to be the lone manner of guaranting that the beginning text has been wholly and right understood. This is chiefly because every work is different and transcribers need to truly hold on the purpose of the writer every bit good as the significance of the text by itself so understanding the chief point in the beginning piece would supply a natural and accurate interlingual rendition.
NewmarkA?s ( 1988 ) treatment sing the analysis of a text, reference that the intent of reading the original, is first to understand what the text is approximately and 2nd to analyse the text from a transcriber point of position, to find a suited interlingual rendition method, so the purpose of the text can be understood. Which is complete different from a linguists or literary critics, now that to interpret it is necessary to find the purpose of the author in order to place the right methods of interlingual rendition.
Furthermore, he mention of import stairss at the clip of understanding the text ; near and general reading are necessary to capture the kernel of the text, familiarize and happen extra facts. Furthermore there is the close reading, where the transcriber demand to analyze the text, required for words both in and out of context, everything that does non hold a good sense needs to be looked up. Translation is compare to an iceberg, the interlingual rendition is merely the top, but the research and probe of the transcriber is what holds the top, that can ne’er been see.
2.1.1 Text Manners
To interpret a whole text accurately it requires consideration of its context and ensuing characteristics, such as manner. Newark ( 1988 ) points out Nida ‘s four types of literary or non-literary texts:
a ) Narrative: a dynamic sequence of events, where the accent is on the verbs or for English “ dummy ” or “ empty ” verbs plus verb-nouns or phrasal verbs ( “ He made a sudden visual aspect ” , “ He burst in ” )
B ) Description: is inactive, with accent on associating verbs, adjectives, adjective nouns.
degree Celsiuss ) Discussion: a intervention of thoughts, with accent on abstracts nouns ( constructs ) , verbs of idea, mental activity ( “ see ” , “ argue ” , etc ) , logical statement and conjunctions.
vitamin D ) Dialogue: with accent on colloquialism and phaticisms.
2.1.2 Stylistic Scales
The stylistic graduated table is one of the chief facets when transcribers analyze the text ; this is because it helps the transcriber to place the type of readers the text would be addressed to, every bit good as the vocabulary that would be needed in the interlingual rendition.
22.214.171.124 Scale of formality
Based on Newmark ( 1988 ) the following are illustrations of the graduated table of formality:
Officialese – ‘The ingestion of any nourishments whatsoever is flatly prohibited in this constitution. ‘
Official – ‘The ingestion of nourishments is prohibited. ‘
Formal – ‘You are requested non to devour nutrient in this constitution. ‘
Neutral – ‘Eating is non allowed here. ‘
Informal – ‘Please do n’t eat here ‘
Colloquial – ‘You ca n’t feed your face here. ‘
Slang – ‘Lay off the nosh. ‘
Taboo – ‘Lay off the screw nosh. ‘
126.96.36.199 Scale of generalization or trouble
Newmark ( 1988 ) besides points out specific types in the graduated table of generalization:
Simple – ‘The floor of the sea is covered with rows of large mountains and deep cavities. ‘
Popular – ‘The floor of the oceans is covered with rows of large mountains and deep cavities. ‘
Neutral – ‘A cemetery of animate being and works remains prevarications buried in the Earth ‘s crust. ‘
Educated – ‘The latest measure in vertebrate development was the tool-making man. ‘
Technical – ‘Critical way analysis is an operational research technique used in direction ‘
Opaquely proficient – ( comprehendible merely to an expert ) ‘Neuraminic acid in the signifier of its alkali-stable methoxy derived function was foremost isolated by Klenk from gangliosides. ‘
2.2.3 Scale of Emotional tone
Keeping on Newmark ( 1988 ) position, he defined three graduated tables of emotional tone which are:
Intense: ( profuse usage of intensives ) : “ perfectly fantastic, ideally dark bass, tremendously successful, wonderfully controlled, gentle, soft, heart-warming tunes. ”
Factual: ( cool ) : “ Significant, exceptionally good judged, personable, presentable, considerable. ”
Apprehensible: “ notaˆ¦undignified ” ( Understatement )
On the other manus, Newmark ( 1988 ) besides mentioned the importance of the attitude for ratings and recommendation texts now that there is a thin line in the critical difference between positive or negative sentiments for a transcriber, for this ground is necessary to set up the criterions of the author. In add-on, the transcriber must be certain that the looks are understood in the mark text taking into consideration if they are positive, impersonal, or negative.
2.1.3 Text map
The text map provides to the reader the thought of what the text is about, and besides what the writer is seeking to convey them. For this ground it is really of import for the transcriber to acknowledge every bit good the beginning text map to reproduce the same consequence for the mark readers. Newmark ( 1988 ) mentioned Buhler functional theory of linguistic communication where three chief maps of linguistic communication are explained: expressive, the enlightening, and eventually the vocative.
The chief factor of the enlightening map of linguistic communication is the fact of the subject and the account of the writer. As Newmark ( 1988 ) states the typical enlightening texts are about any subject of cognition. He explained that the format of an enlightening text is standard such as: a text edition, a proficient study, an article in a newspaper or a periodical, a scientific paper, a thesis, proceedingss or docket of a meeting.
It is of import to go forth the text of course in order to understand the information, at the terminal, the aim of an enlightening text is to learn readers about a specific capable affair. He besides mentions that enlightening text has 4 graduated tables of linguistic communication assortments:
First, a formal, non-emotive, proficient manner for academic documents. This graduated table is characterized by passives, present and present perfect tenses, actual linguistic communication, Latinized vocabulary, slang, multi-noun compounds with empty verbs and no metaphors.
Impersonal or informal manner with defined proficient footings of text editions characterized by first individual plural, present tense, dynamic active verbs, and basic conceptual metaphors.
An informal warm manner for popular scientific discipline or art books characterized by simple grammatical constructions, a broad scope of vocabulary to suit definitions and legion illustrations, and stock metaphors and a simple vocabulary.
And eventually, a familiar, non-technical manner for popular news media, characterized by surprising metaphors, short sentences, Americanese, unconventional punctuation, adjectives before proper names and colloquialisms.
Newmark ( 1988 ) stated that expressive map is more related to the feelings of the writer, the head of the talker and the author. He categorized three different facets of the expressive map:
1. Serious inventive literature: Of the four principal types -lyrical poesy, short narratives, novels, plays – lyrical poesy is the most intimate look, while dramas are more obviously addressed to a big audience, which, in the interlingual rendition, is entitled to some aid with cultural looks.
2. Authoritative statements: These are texts of any nature which derive their authorization from the high position or the dependability and lingual competency of their writers. Such texts have the personal ‘stamp ‘ of their writers, although they are denotive, non connotative. Typical important statements are political addresss, paperss etc. , by curates or party leaders ; legislative acts and legal paperss ; scientific, philosophical and ‘academic ‘ plants written by acknowledged governments.
3. Autobiography, essays, personal correspondence: These are expressive when they are personal gushs, when the readers are a distant background Besides, he recommends that the transcriber needs to do a differentiation about the personal constituents of the texts, for illustration: collocations, masters metaphors, neologies, and so on.
The vocative map is related to naming upon the reader to respond of what was written. Based on Newmark ( 1988 ) the nucleus of this map is the readership, and has been given tonss of other names such as: “ conative ” ( denoting attempt ) , “ instrumental ” ( instrumental ) , “ operating, ” and “ matter-of-fact ” ( in the sense of used to bring forth a certain consequence on the readership ) . Examples of a vocative map of linguistic communication are notices, instructions, promotion, propaganda, persuasive authorship where the chief aim is to sell to entertain the addressee.
In the vocative text the vital for the author is the reader now that it aim straight to the reader, the usage of “ you ” is common to develop and act upon in the individual. Newmark reference to facts in vocative text there are besides 2 vocative texts. First, the vocative text is the connexion between the author and reader utilizing some signifiers, infinitives, jussive moods, subjunctives, declarative moods, impersonal, passives, and tickets, all those illustrations playing a portion in asymmetrical or symmetrical relationship. The 2nd factor is that this beginning of text demands to be composing in the easy comprehendible signifier for the reader, the transcriber demand to take in consideration the lingual and cultural degree of the reader.
2.1.4 Type of interlingual rendition
The application of the interlingual rendition methods will transform the beginning text to an available mark text for wider readers and do communicating possible among the talkers of the different linguistic communications. Newmark ( 1988 ) mentioned that several bookmans have been seeking to place what are the best interlingual rendition methods, whether to interpret literally or freely. No affair what techniques or methods are used, the transcriber ‘s occupation is to keep a faithful mark text. Even though, there are different interlingual rendition methods, this chapter will develop merely two of them: semantic interlingual rendition and communicative interlingual rendition.
188.8.131.52 Semantic interlingual rendition
Harmonizing to Newmark ( 1988 ) semantic interlingual rendition differs from ‘faithful interlingual rendition ‘ merely in every bit far as it must take more history of the aesthetic value ( that is, the beautiful and natural sounds of the SL text, compromising on ‘meaning ‘ where allow so that no vowel rhyme, word-play or repeat jars in the finished version. Further, it may interpret less of import cultural words by culturally impersonal 3rd or functional footings but non by cultural equivalents – une nonne repassant un corporal may go ‘a nun pressing a bodily fabric ‘ – and it may do other little grants to the readership. The differentiation between ‘faithful ‘ and semantic ‘ interlingual rendition is that the first is sturdy and dogmatic, while the 2nd is more flexible, admits the originative exclusion to 100 % fidelity and allows for the transcriber ‘s intuitive empathy with the original.
184.108.40.206 Communicative interlingual rendition
This method is use to render the exact contextual significance of the beginning linguistic communication to the mark linguistic communication is such signifier that both linguistic communications and content are acceptable and comprehendible to the reader. Newmark ( 1988 )
He remarks about the last to methods ( semantic and communicative ) , they fulfill the chief purposes of interlingual rendition ( truth and economic system ) . In the instances of semantic interlingual rendition the transcriber writes as the degree of the writer, but the communicative interlingual rendition is base in the reader and his demands. Semantic in common usage for expressive texts, in the instance of communicative is normally use in enlightening and vocative texts. These 2 methods treat the undermentioned points similarity: stock and dead metaphors, normal collocations, technique footings, slang, colloquialism, standard notice, phaticisms, and ordinary linguistic communication.
2.2 Translation techniques
The interlingual rendition procedure is non an easy undertaking ; nevertheless, transcribers can number with many types of techniques in order to supply a high quality concluding work. It is of import to advert, that transcribers must guarantee they managed the techniques in a proper manner, so the significance of the mark text will non hold coherency jobs. In this portion of the chapter the different type of interlingual rendition techniques develop by writers like Peter Newmark, Vasquez Ayora and Lopez Guix will be explain. All they points of position will by explain and comparison to show the differences between each technique and the importance of each one.
For Vazquez-Ayora ( 1977 ) , the intent of the heterotaxy is to accomplish look naturalness for the mark text, in all degrees like lexical, construction and the context, and besides can be defined as the process where a portion of address of the beginning text is replaced in the mark text. Furthermore, Newmark ( 1988 ) aims different types of heterotaxy or “ displacement ” ( term used by Catford ) such as:
aˆ? Change from remarkable to plural: “ furniture ” to “ des muebles ”
aˆ? Change in the place of the adjective: “ la maison blanche ” to “ the white house ”
aˆ? When the beginning text contains a grammatical construction that does non be in the mark text: “ forty-nine viente de le faire ” to “ late ” .
aˆ? When actual interlingual rendition is grammatically possible but may non harmonize with natural use in the mark text: “ Il Ne tardera pas a tenant ” to “ He will come back shortly ”
And he concludes that heterotaxy is the lone process that is related to grammar, and usually transcribers use this method intuitively. In order to hold an built-in cognition about the assortments of heterotaxy, here are exemplified some of the assortments which were mentioned by Vazquez-Ayora ( 1977 ) :
“ The application of difficult work should finally bring forth a Eden on Earth ”
“ La aplicacion del trabajo diligente acabaria por producir un paraiso en la tierra ”
“ That wo n’t be frequently adequate ”
“ Eso seria demasiada frecuencia ”
“ The echt international organic structure ”
“ El genuino cuerpo internacional ”
220.127.116.11 Verb or Past Participle/Noun
“ We have n’t hear from him for a long clip ”
“ No hemos tenido noticias suyas por mucho tiempo ”
“ We will try to be brief ; trusting on subsequent treatment to clear up points whichaˆ¦ ”
“ Trataremos de ser breves, confiados en que Las discusiones subsiguientes podremos esclarecer ”
“ There used to be an hostel at that place ”
“ Habia hace mucho alli una posada ”
18.104.22.168 Noun/Verb or Past Participle
“ During the balance of the term ”
“ Hasta que expire EL mandato ”
“ It was another busy twenty-four hours get downing ”
“ Comenzaba otro dia de ajetreos ”
“ He pulled aggressively upward into a full cringle ”
“ Ascendio agudamente hasta completar un giro ”
22.214.171.124 Past Participle/Adjective
“ Improved inputs ”
“ Insumos mejores ( o de mejor calidad ) ”
Harmonizing to Newmark ( 1988 ) , transition is defined by Vinay and Darbelnet as: “ a fluctuation through a alteration of point of view, of position ( eclairage ) and really frequently of class of though ” . Standard transition is recorded bilingual lexicons, Newmark reference that free transition is been use by transcribers when a mark linguistic communication reject the literary interlingual rendition, there are 11 classs of transition lists, but Newmark focal point in merely one negated reverse, as positive for dual negative, is a concrete interlingual rendition process which can be applied in any action ( verb, adjectival or adverb ) .
Newmark ( 1988 ) , reference that interlingual renditions are free and dual negative is non a forceful as the positive, the dual negative depends of the voice, for that ground this transition must depend on its preparation and the context. There are lexical spreads, but this transition is virtually compulsory, the process is potentially available, but can be use when the interlingual rendition is non natural, in other instances the processs can be used.
The 2nd transition process harmonizing to Vinay and Darbelnet ‘s is portion of the whole, and it is explains by Newmark ( 1988 ) as: “ deceptively described ; it consists of what I can familiar options ” .
Newmark ( 1988 ) name the other transition processs:
Abstract for concrete
Cause for consequence
One portion for another
Reversal of footings
Active for passive
Time intervals and bounds
Change of symbols
The active for inactive processs is sing a heterotaxy by Newmark ( 1988 ) , it is compulsory when passive do non be. There is of import to advert that Newmark see the classification did by Vinay and Darbelnet incorrect.
On the other manus the definition and classification of transition by Lopez Guix ( 1997 ) , is the same definition of Newmark originated from Vinay and Darbelnet. But it is besides define as a heterotaxy in footings of the message due to the classs of believing alternatively of grammar. In the processs reference before the troubles lifting due to construction of two different linguistics systems, to all this is have to be add the lingual and cultural specifications.
Metonymic transportation ( spacial adjacency, temporal or causal relationship between the original and the interlingual renditions )
Synecdoche or inclusion ( this transmutation is more common in English since this linguistic communication is more direct, concrete )
Reversal of footings ( the alteration became the appositive )
Negated contrary to make an avowal ( It is common in English, the usage is non compulsory, the used depends of the context ) Active for passive ( English prefer the inactive voice, face-to-face to Spanish which reject the inactive voice ) Change of symbols ( this process let the transcriber to about the alienation and desfamiliarization at the clip to transform the sentences ) The alteration from a insouciant for to an educated signifier ( this is a common alteration from English to Spanish ) Lopez Guix ( 1997 )
Another writer is Vasquez Ayora ( 1977 ) he see transition as manner to contend the literalism. Stylistic comparison impression, it is a conceptual based inside a proposition, without altering the significance, which is a different point of position from the transcriber utilizing a different metaphor. Like Guix and Newmark, Ayora ( 1977 ) , base is analysis with the same account of Vinay and Darbelnet. Ayora besides mention that a different point of position will be the lingual analysis. To this account we can add the hypothesis of George Mounin ( 1970 ) which said “ different point of position different analysis of text ” . Ayora see heterotaxy and transition the most of import processs of interlingual rendition. The classification of transition from Ayora is:
Abstract for concrete
Cause for consequence
One portion the whole
One portion for another
Inversion de end point
Form, facet and used
Change of symbols
Symbols, in this instance Ayora ( 1977 ) subdivide this process in:
Passive to active
Complement and constellation phrases
Hypotactic and paratactic order
Question and avowal Markss
Director indirect address
Exocentric and endocentric looks
Figurate and direct vision
Figurate vision to another
Direct vision to calculate
Animism to inanimismo
2.2.3 Omision and amplificacion
Some of the interlingual rendition methods are chiefly used to decide some reciprocation issues in order to convey the significance and tantrum into the mark linguistic communication. A non-expert transcriber is more orientated to actual interlingual rendition because of his/her fright or deficiency of cognition about the different types of methods ; nevertheless, in interlingual rendition the aim is to esteem the thoughts in order to convey the significance and non to be focused merely on the words. One of the processs that help translator to be more natural is skip, since as Vazquez-Ayora ( 1977 ) says it is frequently ignored or underused. He besides adds that skip obeys to the lingual rule of “ salvaging ” and the demand of naturalness of equality in the mark linguistic communication. Furthermore, Vazquez-Ayora nowadayss different types of skip, some illustrations below:
126.96.36.199 Omission of Abusive Redundancies
“ In many instances companies profit from the research grants ”
“ Muchas companias sacan provecho de las donaciones para la investigacion ”
188.8.131.52 Omission of Repletion
“ Georgette smiled that fantastic smiling, and we shook manus all unit of ammunition
( Hemingway ) ”
“ Georgette tuvo una maravillosa sonrisa Y todos nos dimos La mano ”
184.108.40.206 Omission of Auxiliary “ can ”
“ I can hear music in the following room ”
“ Oigo musica en la otra oficina ”
220.127.116.11 Different Examples of Omission:
“ The deductions of increasing mutuality among states ”
“ Las implicaciones de la creciente interdependencia de las naciones ( o de la
dependencia entre naciones ”
“ The merely other nomination made so far is that of the Argentine
“ La unica candidatura propuesta hasta ahora Es La del Embajador de
In contrast, the add-on method is opposed to “ salvaging, ” without pretermiting the natural tone of the mark text, where more lexemes and morphemes ( words or symbols ) are used in the concluding text to show the same thought. There are besides several types of add-on, harmonizing to Vazquez-Ayora ( 1977 ) ; nevertheless, merely some of them will be mentioned:
18.104.22.168 Adverb Addition
“ I told her that life here is non interesting ”
“ Le dije que La vida en esta ciudad carece de interes ”
22.214.171.124 Verb Addition
“ I do n’t cognize what you mean ”
“ No se lo que quieres decir ”
126.96.36.199 Adjectival Addition
“ I intent to discourse the economic system of your plans ”
“ Deseo discutir La economia de las propagandas que ustedes dirigen ”
Explicitation is used by transcribers to show what is inexplicit from the beginning text to the mark text. Harmonizing to Vazquez-Ayora ( 1977 ) , the English linguistic communication owns high degrees of semantic and meta-linguistic facets that need to be explicit in Spanish, intending that English has lingual concentration of idea advantages over Spanish, so if these elements are non clear, the mark text can be obscure. Furthermore, Vazquez-Ayora adds that the chief aim of this method is “ explain ” and “ be specific ; ” nevertheless, he emphasizes that this process can non be used overused, since if the message from the beginning text is “ concealed, ” it should be translated as the original paper in order to non loss the truth. Below some illustrations:
“ He shook his caput ” can be translated as “ Movio La cabeza afirmativamente ”
“ A demand for specific accomplishments ” can be translated as “ Necesidad de personal especializado en ramos especificos ”
“ Their long journey halfway across the universe ” can be translated as “ El largo viaje que habia de conducirles a travez del mundo ”
2.2.5 Traduccion actual
For this term Newmark see actual interlingual rendition as a technique and best option to interpreting text where the signifier is of import as the content of great addresss, autobiographies and literary plants. Guix ( 1977 ) explain the literary interlingual rendition with the words of Vinay and Darbelnet, is the transportation word by word esteeming the lingual bonded of the mark linguistic communication. Guix ( 1977 ) besides reference that actual interlingual rendition is interlinear. In the instance of Ayora ( 1997 ) he explains that actual interlingual rendition is a process in which the transcriber demand to affect a parallel construction and construct, this is non word for word interlingual rendition.
2.2.6 Falsas analogas
Both linguistic communications, Spanish and English, have 1000s of words that are the same or alike in signifier and besides have the same significance, this group is known as “ blood relations. ” On the other manus, there are another group of words that are lead oning and look similar, but the significance is rather different, these are known as “ false blood relations ” or “ false friends. ” These false blood relations can do interlingual rendition jobs, so the transcriber needs to be really careful when meeting words that seem to be the same in both linguistic communications ; hence, it is better to non presume the significance of the words and besides recommends reexamining the words in a monolingual lexicon foremost.
The Merriam Webster dictionary define glossary as “ a aggregation of textual rubrics or of specialised footings with their several significances ” “ a list that gives definitions of the difficult or unusual words found in a book ” . But glossaries are much more, they are exceeding tools for transcribers, as they help in the choice of appropriate footings during the interlingual rendition procedure, now that are customized lexicons with a list of footings in a particular topic or field with its definitions, utilizations, and associated notes in the mark linguistic communication.
Glossaries are used by transcribers working on hard text with specific nomenclature ; these lists of footings could besides include any company or merchandise specific content runing from standard abbreviations, names, proficient footings and phrases ; package strings ; legal footings ; ingredient lists ; catalogue points ; and more depending on the field of the interlingual rendition. Plus other placing information such as context or mention that may besides be included.
In this subdivision specific facets of the glossary would be explained such as its relevancy non merely for the transcriber but as for the interlingual rendition procedure, in add-on to the processs for transcribers to make a glossary.
2.3.1 Relevance for the transcriber
Harmonizing to Gapper ( 2008 ) Translators are non required to cognize the precise significance of all bing words ; particularly when working with specialised text such as: institutional interlingual renditions, documents from the country of political relations, commercialism, finance, and medical specialty ; so even the best transcriber may happen hard interpreting specific constructs or gimmick phrases if he is non acquainted to that peculiar subject or field. That is why, transcribers should hold at manus the necessary tools to develop an accurate interlingual rendition and the glossary is the ideal tool, now that it helps transcribers to do certain that each clip a defined cardinal term appears, in any linguistic communication, it is used systematically and right in add-on it ensures that those hard footings that will be needed by the reader are write down in an easy manner assisting to better understand the papers subject and constructs.
2.3.2 Relevance for the interlingual rendition procedure:
In the field of interlingual rendition, the usage of a glossary to keep consistence is truly of import and can do a large difference in the quality and coherency of the translated papers.
Entree to reliable and accurate nomenclature is cardinal to minimise the spent of clip on researching and rectifying the footings that can be so clip consuming, in that manner the glossary is utile by salvaging clip and attempt to the transcribers, in add-on to guarantee consistence within and across the text paperss. And all this is to bring forth an apprehensible content to readers, assisting the text to pass on efficaciously its message to the audience.
2.3.3 How to make a glossary?
For the intent of explicating in a clear and specific manner the creative activity of the glossary, some of import recommendations made by Gapper ( 2008 ) would be mentioned
The first measure proposed by Gapper ( 2008 ) consists on finding what is needed in order to make a preliminary design ; this will assist to specify the undertaking range and an efficient clip direction, particularly if the undertaking will be delivered for a specific organisation. In this manner, the transcriber can guarantee a high quality work. Harmonizing to Gapper ( 2008 ) , the garnering information procedure will let the individual or transcriber to hold a huge cognition of what is required. Once all this information is compiled, it is besides necessary to hold the informations documented and consistently archived. At this point, the transcriber can travel over with the glossary creative activity based on the demands and the users that were defined during the first phase.
Below, the specific stairss to bring forth a glossary based on Gapper ( 2008 ) recommendation:
aˆ? Determine the intent of the glossary ( users, used, where and under what fortunes will be used? what establishment will be benefit? and so on )
aˆ? Define the content ( footings, information sing the footings )
aˆ? Additional information, if required ( singular/plural, dramatics, use, and so on )
aˆ? Format Definition
In add-on, harmonizing to Gapper ( 2008 ) another of import determination will be to define what type of information will be included for each term. The inclusion of equalities can ensue should enrich the glossaries, due to there are some words vary in different states with the same spoken linguistic communication ; she besides suggests that a glossary can include illustrations on how to utilize a specific term, this can assist as a comparing with other footings, and besides idiomatic looks can be included to steer the user.
On the other manus, facets about the format need to be analyzed, here, is of import to see facets like: the usage of caps, parenthesis, and alphabetic order.
The last measure based on Gapper ( 2008 ) recommendation is the confirmation phase, so before presenting the concluding version it is needed a punctilious reappraisal of the work performed, in the first reading the content should be review to guarantee the information is true and accurate, and so it guarantees that was offered in a clear and consistent manner, the 2nd reading is fundamentally focused on the use of linguistic communication and the format facets.
Gapper ( 2008 ) concludes that one time corrections have been made, the glossary can be distributed to a group of users ; in this manner, the concluding undertaking can have input from them about skips or issues in order to be fixed and eventually present a quality work to the concluding client.
2.4 Relationship between the theories and the research inquiries
The aim of the undermentioned subdivision is to supply the relationship between the theories explained and the research inquiries established on Chapter 1.
The interlingual rendition procedure would non be possible without utilizing the correct procedures so this research is to reload the technique and methods used in interlingual rendition in order to develop the most natural and faithful interlingual rendition from the beginning linguistic communication to the mark linguistic communication, it is besides to explicate the techniques use through clip by several experts so as the importance and apprehension of the methods to develop the thesis in the undermentioned chapters.
In add-on, an analysis of the processs would be explained utilizing the translated texts to supply an illustration about how these interlingual rendition techniques are apply in a existent work. Furthermore it will depict the frequence use of this techniques and which one of these techniques.
And eventually, reference of the importance of a glossary non merely for a transcriber but for the interlingual rendition procedure every bit good in add-on to the importance of developing one to salvage clip and accomplish an accurate and alleviate interlingual rendition,