Introduction Motivation is the will to act. In the workplace, seek to influence work-group to align their motivations with the needs of the organization. To release the full potential of employees, organizations are rapidly moving away from ‘control’ and toward “advise and consent” as a way of motivating. This change of attitude began when employers recognized that rewarding good work is more effective than threatening punitive measures for bad work. However, Decision-Making is the way an organization decides to make decisions.
The leader must think of the best possible style that will allow the organization to come up with the best results. When the leader involves participants, it is shown to improve job satisfaction. Synergy is important in decisions because it is the ability for people to work together and produce results that can exceed decision making made by an individual. In additions, it comprises the attitudes, experiences, beliefs and values of an organization. The Work-group within the organization have their own behavioral quirks and interactions which, to an extent, affect the whole system.
Organizational culture is the specific collection of values and norms that are shared by people and groups in an organization and that control the way they interact with each other and with stakeholders outside the organization. Organizational values are beliefs and ideas about what kinds of goals members of an organization should pursue and ideas about the appropriate kinds or standards of behavior organizational members should use to achieve these goals.
From organizational values develop organizational norms, guidelines or expectations, that prescribe appropriate kinds of behavior by employees in particular situations and control the behavior of organizational members towards one another. Motivation Disinterested behavior is an important characteristic of civil services. In academic public administration, public service motivation and similar concepts are becoming increasingly important in explaining this kind of behavior. However, Motivation is the activation of goal-oriented it is occupying an important position within public administration nowadays.
Besides that ability, organizational structure, availability of resources and financial incentives all factor in determining whether work get done. Motivation behavior is equally characteristic of public bureaucracies as it is of private bureaucracies. The concept of public service motivation was developed as a counterweight to the self-interested motivation of rational choice theories. This concept should provide more openings to explain the disinterested behavior often displayed by public servants There are two motivation concepts which may included intrinsic or extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation
Intrinsic motivation which is the reward comes from inherent to a task or activity itself which may include system and individual reward such as pay, bonuses and promotion. This form of motivation has been studied by the social and educational psychologists since the early 1970s. Besides that it is help to build the loyalty of the employees in an organization and to ensure a minimum level of satisfaction. The nature of public service may appeal more people to motivate by the intrinsic rewards. However, it is a motivator that is related to the level of job satisfaction and self esteem.
Extrinsic motivation Extrinsic motivation comes from outside of the performer. Money is the most obvious example, but coercion and threat of punishment are also common extrinsic motivations. In additions, Trophies are also is an extrinsic incentives. General extrinsic which is include competition, it is important to encourage the performer to win and beat others, not to enjoy the intrinsic rewards of the activity. Besides that, social psychological research has indicated that extrinsic rewards can lead to over justification and a subsequent reduction in intrinsic motivation.
However, extrinsic incentives sometimes can also weaken the motivation as well. A study which is done by Green & Lepper who are determined that children who were lavishly rewarded for drawing with felt-tip pens later showed little interest in playing with the pens again. Motivation which is also included Maslow’s hierarchy of needs; it is a theory in psychology which is developed by Abraham Maslow in the years of 1943. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is often depicted as a pyramid which is consisting of five levels The lowest level is associated with physiological a need which is the literal requirements for human survival.
Physiological needs include Breathing, Food, and shelter. A lack of sexual activity would mean the extinction of humanity, probably explaining the strength of the sexual instinct in individuals. However, uppermost level is associated with self-actualization needs, particularly those related to identity and purpose. The motivation of self-actualization needs is to realize one’s own maximum potential and possibilities is considered to be the master motive or the only real motive, all other motives being its various forms.
The need for self-actualization in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, it is a final of need when lower level needs have been satisfied. When the individual has moved upwards to the next level, needs in the lower level will no longer be prioritized. Motivation which is also related to the theory of Frederick Herzberg Frederick Irving Herzberg who is a psychologist became one of the most influential names in business management. He is most famous for introducing job enrichment and the Motivator-Hygiene theory.
The main objective in his theory is to show that satisfaction and dissatisfaction at work from different factors, and was not simply opposing reactions to the same factors, as had always previously been believed. The two factor theory that influences employee’s attitudes about their jobs. Hygienic factor which is included pay and benefit, working condition , work rules , supervision , status and job security , however the motivating factor which are associated with Maslow’s upper level needs such as the social needs for self actualization.
The problem of Motivation in public Services The definition of public service motivation itself is not as widely accepted. The author Perry defines public service motivation as ‘an individual’s predisposition to respond to motives grounded primarily or uniquely in public institutions. Moreover, there are some non-American, authors do not apply the term ‘Public Service Motivation’ at all when studying public service motivated behavior. The differences in both terminology and content complicate the research on public service motivation enormously.
The existence of similar but not identical concepts to explain disinterested public behavior, varying from one institutional environment to another, makes it very difficult to conduct macro-level comparative studies. Organizational Decision Making Decision making is the study of identifying and choosing alternatives based on the values and preferences of the decision maker. Making a decision implies that there are alternative choices to be considered. However , Organizational Decision Making is important to the public private sector because of the social function .
In public sector the administrative decisions are decisions by a public official, typically acting pursuant to a grant of power under an Act of Parliament. The decisions are affect the rights and privileges of persons to participate in the occupational, social and recreational opportunities of the society. There are some common examples of administrative decisions are decisions by public officials which include •Driver’s licence’s and recreational licence’s (eg. hunting licence) •compulsorily acquire the land of a person •grant tax exemptions to persons •commit a person to stand trial for a criminal offence grant or not grant water allocation rights to irrigators •provide health services and educational services Individual and groups make decision it is determines the organization’s viability. At lower level of the organization the decision are made routinely about operational and other job related issues. At the upper echelon decision making is takes an additional element as the managers are deal with complex problems that are require a high level of the expertise. Besides that the decision can be places into two category which is programmed and non programmed decision.
Programmed decision which are made in respond to recurring and unpredictable problems . The decision maker are respond to recurring the unpredictable problem by automatically implementing performances program workout and that are the standard procedure of behavior that employee to follow. However, Public sector managers are less likely to support budget decisions backed by analysis and more likely to support those that are derived from bargaining with agency people. The governmental politic model sees organizational decision making as similar to a competitive game.
It is a way to understanding the player and the incentives of the games which is means you are in the better position to predict and explain the decision that are made. Amitai Etzioni mixed scanning theory It is a theory which is combines higher order fundamental decision making with lower order incremental decision making, mixed scanning it is an approach to reduces the unrealistic aspect of rationalism by limiting the detail require in the fundamental decision and it also help to overcomes the conservative slant of increamentalism by exploring long run alternatives.
The advantages of this theory which is to provide a strategy for evaluation and it does not included hidden structural assumptions. The context- setting fundamental decision serves as an important guide pose for the succession of smaller decision that follows. Sometimes the organization can be made a bad decision in the mistaken of belief that it is in the best interest of the group, it is only to find out later that other shared misgiving. However, the decision makers in the public sector are found in the executive arm of government and comprise the Ministers, Departmental Heads, Administrative Office Heads and Public Officials.
Such officials include a myriad of junior and senior public servants. Organizational Culture Organizational culture is an idea in the field of Organizational studies and management which describes the psychology, attitudes, experiences, beliefs and values of an organization. It is a specific collection of values and norms that are shared by people and groups in an organization and that control the way they interact with each other and with stakeholders outside the organization. In addition, every culture has its own language, taboo that point out what s not permitted that served to strengthen the bond within the organization and present the barrier to the outsiders. The change of culture in the organizations is very important and inevitable. Culture innovations is bound to be . it is related to introducing something new and substantially different from what prevails in existing cultures . In additions it is bound to be more difficult than cultural maintenance. People who are often resist changes therefore; it is a important duty of the management to convince people that likely gain will outweigh the losses.
Besides institutionalization, the other process which is deification it is tends to occur in strongly developed organizational cultures. The organization itself may come to be regarded as precious in itself, as a source of pride, and in some sense unique. Organizational members begin to feel a strong bond with it that transcends material returns given by the organization, and they begin to identify with in. The organization turns into a sort of clan.
In my opinion, the topics of motivation, decision making and organization culture are important for all the organization, it can be improve the bureaucracy and organizational performance in developing country, Besides that, The concept of culture is important to manage organization-wide change. Usually, the failure of organization culture is because of the lack of understanding about the strong role of culture and the role it plays in organizations. So it is a reasons that many strategic planners now place as much emphasis on identifying strategic values as they do mission and vision.
References Black, Richard J. (2003) Organisational Culture: Creating the Influence Needed for Strategic Success, London UK Kotter, John. 1992 Corporate Culture and Performance, Free Press; (April 7, 1992) Stoykov, Lubomir. 1995 Corporate culture and communication, Stopanstvo , Sofia Participatory Economics Book Page (Participatory Decision Making) Deci, E. (1972), “Intrinsic Motivation, Extrinsic Reinforcement, and Inequity”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Kerr, Steven (1995) On the folly of rewarding A, while hoping for B. http://pages. stern. nyu. edu/~wstarbuc/mob/kerrab. html