The following class of Hofstedes theoretical account that we take a expression at is Collectivism vs. Individualism. The tonss of this class come as no surprise. The UK ranks really high at 89, intending they are a really individualistic state that believes in looking out for one ‘s ego before looking out for others. Greece on the other manus scores a 35, intending they are a really collectivized state, specifying their self-image as “ we ” alternatively of “ I ” , and doing determinations that will profit the group and non merely themselves ( Geert ) . The fact that these two states score so otherwise on this dimension means that the manner they do concern and do every twenty-four hours determinations are highly different from one another. For illustration, in the UK a director of a company may take a trade offered from another company right off if they know it will assist them progress in their calling. However, this same director, if born and raised in Greece were offered the same trade, they may take a measure back and find whether it is traveling to assist their company as a whole every bit good as his/her other close colleagues. Another thing the Grecian director might besides hold to see before accepting the trade is how good they know the individual offering it to them, because relationships are highly meaningful in leftist civilizations.
Femininity vs. Masculinity is the following dimension to analyse from Hofstede ‘s theoretical account. Scoring 66 and 57, the UK and Greece, severally, rank the closest in this class. These Numberss mean that the UK and Greece are both more masculine civilizations, but non by much. Bing a masculine civilization means that the society is driven by competition and success. Without cognizing it kids follow the thoughts of maleness from a immature age, viing against their fellow pupils in school for the best classs. This same behaviour follows them all the manner to the working universe where they compete with others in the work topographic point for the following publicity or fillip ( Geert ) . As mentioned above Greece and the UK are more masculine states, nevertheless, since they ‘re tonss are more mean in this dimension there are still some feminine features drifting about in their civilizations, such as their quality of life, being an of import factor ( Geert ) .
Finally, the last dimension to analyse is uncertainness turning away. This dimension is defined in the Hoft article as “ the extent to which people feel threatened by unsure or unknown state of affairss. ” In contrast from the muliebrity vs. maleness dimension, the UK and Greece rank the furthest apart from one another in this class. The United Kingdom ranks really low on the uncertainness turning away graduated table significance they do non mind covering with indefinite state of affairss and are more susceptible to hazardous state of affairss. Greece on the other manus is the complete antonym ; they want to cognize every item of every state of affairs they enter into if possible. Once once more, because Greece and the UK rank so otherwise in this dimension, their concern determinations and life determinations would be really different from one another. It would be safe to presume that the UK would take the surrogate option as Greece more frequently than non, when it comes to state of affairss with unsure results. For illustration, if a concern adult male in Greece were to be approached with a semi-risky investing chance, they might turn it down instantly, but a concern adult male in the UK offered the same trade might accept it right off, without believing twice, every bit long as it had the possible to profit him or his company.
After analysing each of Hofstede ‘s dimensions, we can now utilize these rankings to find the type of accounting system we would anticipate each state to utilize, utilizing Gray ‘s theoretical account. The first accounting value that Gray defines is Professionalism vs. Statutory control, which is the penchant of single professional judgement over specific conformity with written legal authorizations. This penchant is determine by looking at the individuality, uncertainness turning away, and power distance of states ( Gray ) . Take the UK as an illustration, they rank really high in footings of individualism and low in footings of uncertainness turning away and power distance, which Gray determined to intend they would tilt more toward professionalism in accounting, utilizing one ‘s ain professional judgement over statutory controls. As Greece ranks the complete antonym as the UK in these dimensions their accounting system would be based more on following rigorous statutory controls and non trusting to a great extent on professional judgement.
The following accounting value determined by Gray was Uniformity V. Flexibility. This value takes into history the same three of Hofstede ‘s dimensions as Professionalism vs. Statutory control did. Gray found that the higher a state ranks in uncertainness turning away and power distance, and the lower they rank of individuality, the more likely they are to be more unvarying and less flexible. In our illustration, this would intend that Greece is likely to be really unvarying in their accounting patterns. This means that between each company the same unvarying rules of accounting would be used and they would stay the same overtime ( Gray ) . This would do it highly utile when comparing companies ‘ financials over clip and for doing comparings between companies, as each of their statements would look about indistinguishable in signifier. The UK on the other manus has more flexibleness in their accounting methods. They are concerned with maintaining internal certification consistent, but may hold really different financials internally so they release externally. The UK besides looks at each company separately and uses professional judgement to construe each company ‘s records.
Conservatism V. Optimism has been determined to be “ the most permeant principal in accounting rating ” , and is hence an highly of import dimension when it comes to analysing the type of accounting system used in different states ( Gray ) . Conservatism trades with the extent to which you report your assets, liabilities, and net incomes on fiscal statements. A really conservative state will minimize assets and net incomes and overstate liabilities, while an optimist state will enter the opposite. Grey measured this accounting value in footings of uncertainness turning away, individuality, and maleness. A state that has high uncertainness turning away and low individuality and maleness is determined to be more conservative in nature. In our running illustration so, we can find that Greece is more conservative in nature than the UK is. Therefore, if we were to give the same companies financials to an comptroller in each of our several states, we could anticipate differences in the recording of assets, liabilities, and net incomes.
Last, Gray uses all four dimensions of Hofstede ‘s theoretical account to find the degree of secretiveness and transparence used by comptrollers in their several states. Secrecy is frequently closely related to conservativism, which is why it comes as no surprise that Greece is a more close state than the UK is. Although they are really closely related, secrecy trades more with the sum of information that the accountant chooses to unwrap and let go of to the populace ( Gray ) . The UK on the other manus tends to be more crystalline with the coverage of fiscal information, leting the populace to see the financials in their entireness. Overall, the United Kingdom ‘s accounting system would be shaped around professionalism, flexibleness, optimism, and transparence, whereas Greece ‘s would be based on statutory control, uniformity, conservativism, and secrecy. As each of these states patterns complete face-to-face values when it comes to making their fiscal statements, it is safe to presume that a fiscal statement made for the same company in each of these two states could potentially hold dramatic fluctuations.
It is of import to observe nevertheless, that one must be really careful when utilizing Hofstede ‘s theoretical account to analyse the differences between states. What users should be cognizant of is looking merely at the Numberss by themselves, and non in comparing to other states. This is of import because in this instance say you were to look at the United Kingdom ‘s muliebrity vs. maleness mark of 66 ; this is a in-between or mean figure and compared against nil it does n’t let you to do any outstanding decision. However, say you were to compare it against Japan, who has a really masculine civilization, a mark of 95 to be exact, it would demo you the true contrast of maleness between the two states, whereas looking at one figure by itself does n’t let you to deduce as much about that civilization ( Geert ) . It may look really basic, but, it is besides highly of import to understand Hofstede ‘s theoretical account before utilizing it. There is no graduated table straight on the theoretical account, so one must understand how the marking is read, for illustration, a high mark for Bolshevism vs. individuality means that the state is more individualistic, non leftist. A novice user may acquire confused on how the theoretical account works and hence could do wrong illations from utilizing it. However, if you understand the theoretical account and can compare between states right, so Hofstede ‘s theoretical account can be a really utile tool in understanding the differences between civilizations throughout the universe.
After reading the legion articles on cultural differences seen around the universe, particularly in Islamic states, it is safe to state we are non all on the same page, particularly when it comes to accounting patterns. As human beings we automatically carry with us cultural luggage and have bias ingrained in our existences. As westerners we besides believe in “ our manner or the main road ” and that we are superior to other states in everything that we do. However, if we could utilize Hofstede ‘s theoretical account to assist us step into the places of people from other civilizations and understand the outstanding characteristics from their lives, it might assist us to make harmonisation of accounting patterns throughout the universe. Take into consideration the difference between Eastern and Western civilizations based on Hofstede ‘s dimensions.
The more western states tend to be individualistic and more accepting of hazardous or unsure state of affairss. These states besides tend to hold low power distance, intending they see everyone on a flat playing field, and no 1 is genuinely superior in their eyes. Last, western states tend to be somewhat more masculine so feminine, but non by much, leting us to reason that they are competitory and driven by success, but they are besides caring people. In contrast, Islamic states, such as Saudi Arabia, are polar antonyms in all of Hofstede ‘s dimensions except for maleness vs. muliebrity which they rank really likewise with western states ( Geert ) . Sing that these two “ universes ” are opposing one another on the bulk of Hofstede ‘s dimensions, makes it clear as to why Eastern or Islamic states are so unaccepting of western accounting rules. Taking Hofstede ‘s dimension a measure further and using them to Gray ‘s theoretical account allows us to see how these cultural differences straight affect their different accounting systems.
Using the United States and Saudi Arabia as illustrations of Western and Eastern states, we can utilize their cultural dimensions defined by Hofstede to look at how Gray would find the accounting systems used. The US has comparatively low power distance and uncertainness turning away and high individuality. Saudi Arabia on the other manus has high uncertainness turning away and power distance, and is considered really collectivized, non individualistic at all ( Geert ) . Based on these dimensions one could presume that the United provinces ‘ accounting system is based on professionalism, flexibleness, optimism, and transparence, while the Saudi Arabian accounting systems is based on statutory controls, uniformity, conservativism, and secrecy. As we can see after seting these two states through both Hofstede ‘s and Gray ‘s theoretical accounts they are opposite in about all international variables every bit good as accounting values, doing it about impossible for Saudi Arabia to understand and want to accept Western accounting rules, as they go against all of their cultural beliefs.
As we can see utilizing these two theoretical accounts makes it evident that these two states are non traveling to hold on much. Therefore, if policy shapers and legislative authors were to utilize Hofstede ‘s theoretical account to understand assorted civilizations before composing accounting rules, they may be able to come up with something more culturally acceptable for everyone. For illustration, individuality and uncertainness turning away are two of Hofstede ‘s dimensions that go into finding every one of Gray ‘s accounting values. Therefore, looking at these two dimensions entirely and comparing them across states could state policy shapers a batch about how their regulations are traveling to be interpreted and used across concerns in different states. Conservatism V. Optimism and secretiveness vs. transparence are the two accounting values that will most impact the manner different states will describe their financials. Using Hofstede ‘s dimensions to find where states fall on these two classs could assist policy shapers set certain thresholds for a scope of optimism/conservatism allowed in certain big classs such as assets and liabilities, every bit good as a scope of transparence and secretiveness allowed when let go ofing paperss to the populace. This scope would n’t prefer either of the extremes in both of these classs, but more or less would be a world-wide norm and be determined as a sensible degree by all. Using this universe broad norm may assist policy shapers attain the accounting harmonisation they are seeking for.
On top of all the cultural differences between western and eastern states, defined specifically by Hofstede ‘s theoretical account, acquiring an Islamic, eastern state to accept the same accounting rules as a western one has one more deduction to see, faith. Harmonizing to the article by Ibrahim, “ conventional ( Western ) accounting operates from a model of values, which are inconsistent with Islamic values. ” Ibrahim believes this is because of difference in values and norms of each of the universes. He states that the West takes its values from philosophical idea, influenced somewhat by the Judeo-christian faith, whereas Islamic societies derive their values from spiritual Bibles. On top of that, most western states believe in popular sovereignty, which is the belief that people themselves are the ultimate authorization, whereas in Islamic societies believe God Himself is the ultimate authorization ( Ibrahim ) . Overall, it can be said that the western universe and Islamic states have wholly different worldviews, determined by their differing values, which affect all facets of their economic and societal behaviours. If the Islamic universe and western universe were of all time to hold similar accounting systems, it would necessitate the Western and Moslem policy shapers to step into one another ‘s places and review of import facets of accounting such as measuring and ratings, overall aims, and changing revelation precedences, and come up with a solution that took one another values and beliefs into consideration ( Ibrahim ) .
As the “ West ” and the “ Rest ” of the universe continue to go more and more interrelated through technological progresss, it becomes evident that non merely do these civilizations conflict on chief international variables, but besides that these civilizations do n’t understand one another to the capacity needed for them to be so intertwined. One tool that could assist these civilizations see one another oculus to oculus would be Adam Smith ‘s two thoughts of “ fellow-feeling ” and “ sympathy ” . If societies around the universe could follow these two thoughts and utilize them when interacting with or merely ephemeral judgement on people from other civilizations, so we would see one another in a much brighter visible radiation, leting us to work more cohesively, making prosperity throughout the Macro-Quantum World.
Adam Smith defines the “ fellow-feeling ” as the desire to love others and be loved by others. Through this feeling people gain a common regard for one another every bit good as making a common position of what is moral and what is non. As this common position is created it allows all parties involved to inherit the same moral compass, so that each believes that similar actions are right and incorrect for society ( Wight ) . If the West and the remainder of this universe started practising Smiths fellow-feeling, we would get down to make a more synonymous universe position. Having this similar worldview would assist to morph our Micro-Quantum universe into a to the full functional Macro- Quantum universe. This fellow feeling could turn the G7 into the G20 as many people have envisioned for old ages, assisting smaller, approaching states get their sentiments and needs heard. Fellow-feeling could besides assist better some of our already in topographic point global organisations, such as NATO, WTO, World Bank, and the UN, every bit good as other. With a common regard for others and similar moral compasses, members would let these organisation to work more smoothly and accomplish undertakings quicker, as they worked toward similar ends. This would get down to unbend and repair the many radiuss of the Macro-Quantum wheel, such as trade, energy, in-migration, and many more ( Marber ) .
Smith besides discusses his thought of “ sympathy ” . Smith describes natural understanding with others as “ enlivens my joy and alleviates my heartache. The fondness we feel for others is in world nil more or less than this accustomed understanding. ” He besides states that “ it happens excessively fast to be a rational, self-promoting response ” ( Wight ) . Under his definition, every bit good as my ain, understanding is the feeling that creeps into your bosom when you think of your neighbour who merely lost their boy or the 1000s of people in Africa who dies from AIDS each twelvemonth. You may hold ne’er experienced a decease in the household or known person who died from AIDS, but when you hear narratives like that, you automatically experience sympathetic to the parties involved. However, one important point that Smith does indicate out about understanding is that it “ diminishes as the distance between us widens ” ( Wight ) . This means that I will experience more sympathetic for my neighbour who lost their boy than I would for the 1000s of people who lose their household members to AIDS in Africa. It ‘s non because I do n’t care about the people in Africa, but it is because I know my neighbours and I feel connected to them so it affects me on a deep, personal degree. Here in lies the job of binding in the feeling of understanding into the full Macro-Quantum universe, the universe is excessively large to experience sincere sympathetic feelings for every individual near and far.
Although understanding may non be the cardinal tool for conveying together the Macro-Quantum universe, fellow-feeling and sympathy, in combination with one another could work admirations. As more people began to pattern Smith ‘s thought of fellow-feeling, they would follow this desire to love and be loved by others. Although they may non believe in everything the other individual does, they have an apprehension of one another, which would let them to shut the “ distance ” between them advancing stronger sympathetic feelings. With the bond created by fellow-feeling and the understanding they have towards one another, it would let us to work as one and undertake some of the tough obstructions we are confronting, such as poorness, in-migration issues, trade, and the energy crisis.
Fellow-feeling and sympathy toward one another would let us to truly understand the importance of acquiring the destitute states around the Earth out of poorness. This aim would be made easier with more unfastened trade paths and in-migration between states. This openness would be made possible because states would be more inviting to people of other states and have an apprehension of the trade that needed to happen in order to do certain each state was acquiring what they needed. Fellow-feeling could besides assist planetary attempts of making a new sustainable, renewable energy beginning. US citizens who experienced fellow-feeling with citizens from any other state in the universe would see how lucky we are to acquire the monetary values on oil and gas that we do, and understand the absolute dire need to cut down on our ingestion. Overall, if citizens all over the universe were to get down sing Smith ‘s fellow-feeling with one another and get down experiencing more sympathetic toward one another, we could assist better every aspect of the Macro-Quantum universe that Marber describes. The universe as a whole would be made up of citizens that care for and esteem one another and would be willing to work toward the same ends to assist make capitalist peace and turn our Micro-Quantum universe into a Macro-Quantum 1.
Harmonizing to Yahoo! Education, 59.3 % of surveyed employers were be aftering on taking on accounting alumnuss in 2012 ( Manterfeild ) . However, even as one of the more sought after big leagues in the US, over the following few old ages, due to outsourcing and the routine-like work that accountants perform, the demand for accounting big leagues will go on to worsen. As a shortly to be alumnus with both a B.S. and a Master ‘s in Accounting this is non the result I was trusting for. However, thanks to Dan Pink ‘s insightful advice on the manner people think and the manner they are best motivated, I hope to get away the outsourcing tendency and remain in the accounting profession for many old ages to come.
First, Dan discussed the differences between left and right encephalon people in A Whole New Mind. He stated that he himself, as am I, are left encephalon people, stand outing in mathematics and logical type undertakings. Then there are right encephalon people who are artistic and can see things in their entireness, non merely concentrate on the inside informations. In our altering universe today, it seems that it is non adequate to be one or the other, but the existent endowment is found in people who can utilize both sides every bit. Dan states that it is indispensable to hold left encephalon accomplishments, but it is now more of import than of all time to hold an every bit as great right side of the encephalon. Left encephalon accomplishments have been mastered now and people can state others how to make them, doing mechanization and outsourcing to happen. The right encephalon accomplishments nevertheless are high construct and high touch and merely can non be outsourced. The six senses that Dan describes every bit right encephalon accomplishments to hone in on are design, narrative, symphonic music, empathy, drama, and significance.
First is design, which is now a portion of every concern, because it ‘s what sells the goods. However, besides being a major merchandising point for points, it can besides be used to steer users utilizing certain plans. For illustration, design can be applied to the accounting universe in the package and databases they use on a regular footing. Having efficaciously designed databases, work documents, and other of import certification is a quintessential in order to be a successful comptroller. Not merely can it be used internally, but design is besides of import for the logo ‘s and image of public accounting houses, assisting them to capture and maintain the clients they want. As an associate hearer to-be, understanding how design works could assist me navigate slippery databases and make impressive presentations if I were asked to make so. Design could besides be really good if I were to do it to pull offing function. At this phase gross revenues becomes a portion of your occupation. As an hearer and gross revenues individual I would necessitate to cognize the image and make-up of possible clients every bit good as continuing our image of PwC.
Following, is the facet of narrative. Story is what draws people in and makes them experience an emotional connexion to an point or company. Story is an highly utile tool when it comes to Non-for-profit clients of accounting houses. I know when I was an intern for PwC this past summer everyone wanted the large public companies, because they are ever in the topographic point visible radiation and doing the “ large vaulting horses ” . However, these large populace companies do n’t hold the same heart-felt narratives that some of the Non-for-profits ( NFP ‘s ) do, and I know the people that worked for the NFP ‘s felt drawn to those companies and had some of the best experiences because their beliefs were in line with those of the non-profit. The narrative that the non-profit organisations told and believed in made their work more alluring and meaningful to their employees and our audit squad. This type of connexion with your employees or even hearers makes it difficult for the company to fire workers and outsource their occupations elsewhere, because the company can see how much their message means to you and they want to maintain you at that place as a loyal employee.
The following sense that Dan describes is symphonic music, which is the ability to see the large image, non merely the bright inside informations. This accomplishment is highly of import to comptrollers and something I know I need to better on. As I mentioned, I had an internship this past summer with PwC, where I performed little parts in the quarterly audit of a company. I spent the full summer making little undertakings for this audit, but it consumed all of my clip, every twenty-four hours. When you are consumed with small inside informations all the clip it is frequently really hard to retrieve that your little pieces are traveling into the larger pie. I believe symphonic music is a accomplishment that comptrollers, hearers, revenue enhancement comptrollers, and advisers all need to hold and will a accomplishment that will put you aside from the remainder. Having this ability is imperative because it is of import that we are able to explicate to our clients what we are making and why we are making it, every bit good as how it will affects the company as a whole. If you can make this successfully so you will go an indispensable participant in the concern universe and your occupation will stay safe from the menace of outsourcing.
Empathy, is vicariously feeling emotions that others are experiencing. It is really leaping into person else ‘s places and experiencing precisely how they are experiencing. This is non merely an of import trait to hold as an comptroller but as any concern individual. It is of import that you are cognizant of people ‘s experiencing around you and that you care for them or sympathize with them when they need it. Making strong relationships with colleagues and clients is indispensable in the concern universe, and frequently these strong friendly relationships reach beyond the company you presently work for. So even if you were to lose your occupation because of outsourcing, the web you built with you colleagues could easy take you to your following occupation.
The following two abilities that Pink touched on are play and significance. These two truly embody two features extremely needed within the accounting universe. Play is express joying and jesting with those around you to raise your liquors even if it is merely for 15 or 20 proceedingss a twenty-four hours. Accounting houses in the US are seeking to add this facet into the work life more frequently by scheduling happy hours and assorted synergistic activities for their employees to take portion in. However, most of these activities take topographic point after work, taking clip out of your personal life, non your work life. Within my life-time I would wish to see the company I work for implement some kind of drama or laughter plan where employees are allowed to take clip out of their twenty-four hours to travel enjoy themselves. I would even take the taking function in forcing for this type of activity in the workplace. I think that if you allow people clip to play and laugh it will let them to take happier work lives and rouse their encephalons. This could take to new advanced thoughts and potentially occupation creative activity, if the thought is a good one, in their place state.
Finally and possibly most significantly, is intending. Tap discusses that traveling toward the center of many companies that are booming today is the linking of purpose and net income. It is companies like these that have motivated, hard-working employees because they believe in what they are making and fell like they are genuinely doing a difference. I believe that the first few old ages at my first occupation out of college will hold significance to me, but merely as “ my first occupation ” and “ larning the ropes ” . I have heard the grueling hours you are forced to work the first twosome of old ages as an audit associate, and I ‘m non certain I ‘m traveling to love my occupation during that clip. However, even after working the long hours I hope that my occupation grows to be meaningful to me, and that significance is non merely to pay the measures. I hope I can to the full hold on how I am assisting investors and stockholders of the companies I audit, and know that I am supplying an honorable service, to the best of my ability. However, every bit shortly as my occupation fails to be meaningful to me I will alter occupations and happen significance elsewhere, no affair how chilling or far out that program may take me. I think this desire to ever keep significance in the work that I do will drive me to believe creatively and happen or make a occupation I will ever bask.
Following, from his book entitled Drive: The Surprising Truth about What Motivates Us, Pink discuses three key incentives, which are autonomy, command, and purpose. Of these three incentives he truly focuses on liberty and intent as the two that are the most of import, so I will make the same. He discusses autonomy as things that have ever been ; regulations that are in topographic point that worlds follow without thought or inquiring. He uses the illustration of direction which is an thought that has been in topographic point since the 1850 ‘s that we still follow without oppugning why, as if it is merely a manner of life. However, Pink states that “ direction is designed to acquire complianceaˆ¦ non engagement ” . Obviously, a company wants their employees to follow by certain regulations and behaviours, but is it right that these same employees are invariably constrained or restricted by orders from direction. After looking at legion surveies, Pink came to the decision that employees are happier and make better work when they are non assigned or “ commissioned ” to make so. Some great thoughts, such as Google News and Gmail have come from employees working on unofficial undertakings ( Dan ) . Having the freedom of liberty allows people to make, and every bit long as this is a incentive, I believe the people will go on to contrive and woolgather, maintaining their occupations safe and sound in their place state.
I believe liberty is an of import facet for accountants/auditors to hold available to them. After working with PwC this summer it is safe to state that as an hearer your every hr of work every twenty-four hours is recorded and examined. It would be nice to one time in a piece hold your ain clip to believe creatively and perchance come up with a new manner to carry on the audit procedure, or make an over the top pitch that will assist you hit your following large client. I believe allowing hearers and comptrollers have this artistic clip to themselves will assist them believe more clearly and intuitively when running through Numberss or rhythms at their client site. This originative thought will besides let them to analyse companies at a different degree, which is non a procedure that could be automated and outsourced to India or China.
Last, Pink discusses the importance of intent, which ties to a great extent into two of his points, narrative and significance, from A Whole New Mind. Purpose is the desire and the “ why ” behind what people are making. Tap points out that directors today are obsessed with “ how ” non “ why ” , but if they asked why more frequently they would acquire increased public presentation from their employees. Employees are worlds and they want to cognize what their work is traveling toward. They want to cognize why they spend half of their waking hours in an office cell with no Windowss. If directors took the clip to explicate why their employees are making the things they do, this would hike those employees psychological wellness and increase public presentation ( Dan ) . As an entrance audit associate, I plan to take Dan ‘s advice and inquire “ Why ” ? I want to understand the undertakings that I am making and what they go into. I feel this intent behind my work will let me to work to the best of my ability, which will hopefully guarantee that I am an indispensable employee to my company, excessively indispensable to be outsourced. Overall, each of these incentives in combination with the 6 abilities based off of right encephalon properties, are of import facets to get and pattern in order to be successful in my future calling.
“ Dan Pink on Motivation, Performance and Challenging Business Orthodoxies. “ A YouTube. YouTube, 19 Apr. 2011. Web. 10 Dec. 2012. & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.youtube.com/watch? v=sL3wF2gHYqg & gt ; .
“ GEERT HOFSTEDE. “ A Countries. N.p. , n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2012. & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //geert-hofstede.com/countries.html & gt ; .
Gray – hypertext transfer protocol: //www.acis.pamplin.vt.edu/faculty/tegarden/5034/handouts/Gray-Abacus-1988.pdf
Hoft – hypertext transfer protocol: //www.acis.pamplin.vt.edu/faculty/tegarden/5034/handouts/UI-CultureModels.pdf
Hofstede-Gray illustration – in category papers
Ibrahim – hypertext transfer protocol: //www.acis.pamplin.vt.edu/faculty/tegarden/5034/handouts/Ibrahim-IntJrnlIslamicFinServ.pdf
Manterfeild, Lisa. “ College Degrees Employers Want Most. “ A Yokel! Education. N.p. , n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012. & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //education.yahoo.net/articles/degrees_employers_want.htm & gt ; .
Marber, Peter.A Sing the Elephant: Understanding Globalization from Trunk to Tail. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & A ; Sons, 2009. Print.
Wight, Jonathan B.A Saving Adam Smith: A Tale of Wealth, Transformation, and Virtue. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Financial Times Prentice Hall, 2002. Print.